is the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia and the headquarters of the Düsseldorf district. The district-free city on the Rhine with 621,877 inhabitants is on the 31st floor. December 2019 is the second largest city in the Bundesland after Cologne. Düsseldorf is the seventh largest city in Germany, after its inhabitants. Düsseldorf is part of the Rhein-Ruhr metropolitan area with a population of around 10 million and the Rhineland metropolitan area with a population of 8.6 million. The city at the heart of the Central European Economic Area has long been ranked sixth in the Mercer studies of the cities with the highest quality of life in the world.
coordinates: 51° 14′ N, 6° 47′ E
|Height:||38 m a.s.l. NHN|
|inhabitants:||621,877 (31) Dec. 2019)|
|population density:||2860 inhabitants per km2|
|primaries:||0211, 0203, 02104|
|Vehicle registration number:||D|
|municipal code:||05 1 11 000|
|urban structure:||10 districts|
with 50 districts
|Mayor:||Stephan Keller (CDU)|
|Situation of the state capital of Düsseldorf in North Rhine-Westphalia and the district of Düsseldorf|
In 1288, the town was given the right to a city at the mouth of the river Düsseldorf in the Rhine. From the end of the 14th century to the beginning of the 19th century. The city was the seat of government of the countries of the Holy Roman Empire and the Rhine Confederation: the duchy of the mountain, the duchy of Jülich-Berg and Jülich-Kleve-Berg, and the Grand Duchy of Berg, from 1690 to 1716 also residence of the Pfalzgrafen and Kurfürsten Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz. 19. It is the seat of the district of Düsseldorf and was still in the 20th century. in Prussia, the seat of parliament of the Rhineland. In the empire, as a result of the high industrialization in Germany, Düsseldorf developed into the "desk of the Ruhr area" and became a major city with the trade mark exceeding 100,000 inhabitants in 1882.
The Rhine metropolis is one of the five most important economic centers in Germany, which are highly interdependent internationally. Düsseldorf is a trade fair city and the seat of many listed companies, including the DAX-listed group Henkel. In addition, it is the most profitable German location for auditing, corporate and legal consultancy, advertising and clothing fashion as well as an important financial and stock exchange location. She is also a leader in the art trade in Germany.
Düsseldorf has several Rhine ports. Its airport is the intercontinental hub of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city is also home to 22 universities, including the renowned Art Academy Düsseldorf and the Heinrich-Heine-Universität. Düsseldorf is also renowned for its old town ("longest bar in the world"), its Königsallee shopping boulevard ("Kö"), its Düsseldorf carnival, the football club Fortuna Düsseldorf and the Eishockeyverein Düsseldorfer EG. Other attractions include numerous museums and galleries as well as the Rhine waterfront promenade and the modern media harbor. The city image is also characterized by numerous high-rise buildings and church towers, the 240-meter high Rhine tower, many monuments and seven Rhine bridges. It is also home to a large number of East Asian residents, including the Japanese community, which is the largest Japanese community and the only Japanese town in Germany. The center of this Japanese community is the Immermannstrasse, which attracts tourists and locals alike with its various Japanese restaurants, shops and supermarkets.
Düsseldorf is located in the middle part of the lowlands of Lower Rhine on a low-terrace area crossed by numerous Rhine arms. Only the districts of Oberkassel, Niederkassel, Heerdt and Lörick are located on the left bank of the Rhine.
The city is part of the flourishing Rhine railway and borders southwest to the Ruhr area. It is thus located in the heart of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area and in the transitional area between the Lower Rhine and the Bergisches Land, to which the city belongs historically. The Rhein-Ruhr metropolitan region is an economic region and an urban conurbation in the west of Germany. It is one of the largest compaction areas in Europe’s megalopolis and is the largest in Germany. In the 20 circular towns and 10 districts of the region, about 11 million inhabitants live on almost 10,000 km² (as of 2005); About nine million people live within a 50-kilometer radius of the Oberzentrum Düsseldorf.
Its central location in the largest metropolitan area of Germany, the main city function for the populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia, the large number of major companies and the provision of all kinds of infrastructure and services give the city great feelings and agglomerations advantages, which greatly facilitate its growth and the emergence of innovative environments. However, the city is spared a number of agglomeration disadvantages, such as a frequently collapsing transport network, an extremely damaging urban climate or top-level property prices, because Düsseldorf itself is not a millionaire city, belongs to a polycentric urban network, and because it surrounds landscape spaces and recreational areas all around it.
The location on the Rhine gives the city the opportunity to present its skyline in an impressive way, in contrast to the river and the wide valley floor in Lower Rhine, which, due to its size, form a vast landscape, and to merge both into a memorable urban landscape.
The highest point in the urban area, the Sandberg in the Hubbelrath district, already part of the Mettremanner Lösterrassen and thus of the Bergisch-Sauerland Lower Land, measures 165 m, the lowest point, the mouth of the Schwarzbach to the Rhine near Wittlaer, 28 m above sea level. No.
The geographical center of Düsseldorf is located in the Düsseldorf Valley, the point is marked with a bronze plaque.
Düsseldorf is located in the center of the zone of Central European Time.
The climate of the Düsseldorf region is marked by the relief opening towards the North Sea. Düsseldorf is located in the lowlands of Lower Rhine; Most of the wind currents in the west carry damp air. The result are mild low-snow winters and moderately warm, wet-sultry summers with a variable weather. In the city there is an average precipitation of about 790 mm at an annual average temperature of 11.2 °C. The Düsseldorf area is one of the mildest winter areas in Germany. Even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below freezing. In the upper part of the frost, the frost will stay just below 0° C. According to the USDA classification of winter hardness zones, Düsseldorf is located in zone 8b, with inner-city microclimates even at zone 9a, meaning that the average temperature of the year is above -6.6 °C. With about 1550 hours of sunshine, Düsseldorf is one of Germany's less sunny cities, which in winter also provides milder temperatures thanks to covered skies and thus less thermal radiation. Due to the mild climate, many exotic and Mediterranean plants such as palm trees, olives, laurel, figs, pines and cypresses are cultivated in the Düsseldorf area.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Düsseldorf
Source: DWD, Data: 2015-2020
Air quality and environmental protection
Energy production, industry and transport are the main causes of man-made air pollution. Due to the high air pollution, the district government of Düsseldorf is planning air pollution control plans. The first air pollution control plan for the entire city area of the state capital of Düsseldorf entered into force on 1 November 2008. It brought together all the plans drawn up so far into a comprehensive plan. Once the plan enters into force, the measures will be implemented by the competent authorities. The aim of this strategy is to achieve compliance with the legal limits for the protection of the health of the population living and working in Düsseldorf as soon as possible.
In the framework of the previous air pollution planning, considerable progress has been made and limit values have been respected for almost all pollutants, in particular the fine particulate matter which was still critical at the beginning of the 2000s. However, the limit of 40 micrograms per cubic meter of air (annual average) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which has been in force since 2010, is still significantly exceeded in Düsseldorf. At the Corneliusstraße measuring point, the annual average value of 2017 at 56 μ g/m³ was still at a very high level of NO2 load. For some time now, the focus has been on the so-called ultra-fine dust particles, especially near airports.
Nitrogen dioxide can cause lasting harm to human health. A long-term increase in the concentration of NO2 in the outdoor air leads to deterioration of pulmonary function and an increase in the incidence of infections-related respiratory diseases such as cough or bronchitis. Particularly affected are those suffering from respiratory diseases and children and adolescents. Cardiovascular disease and mortality are also increasing in the population with increasing NO2 concentration.
Düsseldorf's NO2 pollution zone (the "environmental zone") covers a large part of the urban area, with a population of around 420,000, representing 68% of the population. In this respect, there is an urgent need for action to further reduce the NO2 load in the planned area.
The Düsseldorf district consists of ten districts divided into 50 districts.
The neighborhoods and their neighborhoods
Unlike other major cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, Düsseldorf's districts do not have their own names, but are numbered from 1 to 10. Most of the inhabitants are in the city district 3 with about 109,000 inhabitants, Bilk (about 37,000 people live there) is also the most populated part of the city in the district 3. The least population is in the city district 10 with about 25,000 inhabitants, and the harbor with 1 the smallest population.
The districts and districts are:
- District 1: Old town, Carlstadt, Derendorf, Golzheim, Pempelfort, City Center
- District 2: Düsseltal, Flingern-Nord, Flingern-Süd
- District 3: Bilk, Flehe, Friedrichstadt, Hafen, Hamm, Oberbilk, Unterbilk, Volmerswerth
- District 4: Heerdt, Lörick, Niederkassel, Oberkassel
- District 5: Angermund, Kaiserswerth, Kalkum, Lohausen, Stockum, Wittlaer
- District 6: light broich, mortarsenbroich, Rath, Unterrath
- District 7: Gerresheim, Grafenberg, Hubbelrath, Knittkuhl, Ludenberg
- District 8: Eller, Lrenal feld, Unterbach, Vennhausen
- District 9: Benrath, Hassels, Himmelgeist, Holthausen, Itter, Reisholz, Urdenbach, Wersten
- District 10: Garath, Hellerhof
For more information, see the list of Düsseldorf districts and the list of Düsseldorf districts.
The city of Düsseldorf is bordered to the north by the district-free city of Duisburg and the town of Ratingen, to the east by the towns of Mettmann, Erkrath and Hilden, to the south by the towns of Langenfeld (Rheinland) and Monheim am Rhein (all district Mettmann) and to the west by the towns of Dormagen, Neuss and Meerbusch (all-Kreis Neuss).
|Dormagen||Langenfeld, Monheim am Rhein||Hilden|
From the beginning to the early modern city
The medieval city of Düsseldorf was founded in the 12th and 13th centuries near early medieval old settlements, but as a new foundation - like for example in the Alps or Kalkar - did not emerge directly from one of these old settlements. The settlement was named after the small river Düsseldorf, which flows south of the road Old Town into the Rhine. The name Düssel probably originated from the Germanic term thusila and means the noise. The landscape in which Düsseldorf was founded was before the birth of the county of Berg a former Franconian county belonging to Ripuarien, in which the more recent research called Duisburg-Kaiserswerther County, a dominion of the Ezzons.
The first written mention of Dusseldorp in a ticket cannot be dated and dates from 1135 at the earliest. On June 5, 1288, the Battle of Worringen took place, in which count Adolf V of Berg Düsseldorf conferred the city’s rights on August 14, 1288. The town was a town of only 3.8 hectares and was a place with a wall and a ditch that marked the western border of the county of Berg.
In 1380, Graf Wilhelm II was appointed. by King Wenzel to the statue of the king. In the same year, the new Duke, expressing his rich political function and position, decided to abandon the relatively remote castle on the Wupper as the seat of government and to develop the Düsseldorf on the Rhine as the new residence. For the planned Belgian capital Düsseldorf, a castle was first documented in 1382, which in the following centuries was extended to the Duesseldorf residence castle. Since 1386, the duke and his wife Anna resided there. Between 1384 and 1394, the city was significantly enlarged; the construction of the backstein hall church of St. Lambertus and its rich furnishings with relics and foundations date back to this period. The dukes of Berg united the duchies of Jülich and Kleve with their common duchy, Jülich-Kleve-Berg, through skillful marriage politics. From 1538 to 1543, Düsseldorf was the capital of an association of territorial states, which included the duchy of money, the counties of Mark, Ravensberg and Zutphen, as well as the rule of Ravenstein. Especially under Wilhelm the rich, the region became a center of humanist science and liberal Catholicism. In 1554, when he ruled Jews, an anti-Jewish line prevailed, demanding the expulsion of all Jews. In 1585, the most beautiful documented wedding of the 16th century was organized at the wedding of Prince Johann Wilhelm with the Countess Jakobe of Baden. Under the title Orpheus and Amphion, a theatrical opera with singing and music was performed for the first time. Wilhelm der Reiche was responsible for the reconstruction and extension of the Duesseldorf Castle by the Renaissance builder Alessandro Pasqualini. In 1614, after the extinction of the Jülich-Bergisch-Klevische Regentenstamm in 1609 and during a dispute over the succession between Brandenburg and Pfalz-Neuburg, the Spanish general Ambrosio Spinola occupied the city as an imperial commissioner.
Bergisches Residencial und Landeshauptstadt
After the settlement of the Jülich-Klevische Erbsuccessor dispute, Düsseldorf belonged with the duchy of Jülich-Berg to the then still Protestant house Pfalz-Neuburg, a branch of the noble family of the Wittelsbacher. During the first phase of Palatinate rule, there was a serious conflict between Roman Catholic, Lutheran and reformed civil servants in the court and in the city. Under the influence of his wife, Magdalene of Bavaria, Prince Wolfgang Wilhelm converted to the Roman Catholic Confession in 1613, which enabled him to secure the support of the Catholic League in the political disputes of his time. In 1614, the conversion of Wolfgang Wilhelms in his territories led to the repression of Protestant confessions and the favoring of the Roman Catholic Church. The Jesuits in the courtyard played a key role in the counter-reformation that began.
Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz, named "Jan Wellem" by the Lower Franconian-speaking Düsseldorf villages, had already been the patron of the Palatinate since 1679, and since 1690 Kurfürst von der Pfalz and Herzog von Jülich-Berg, also held as a sovereign in Düsseldorf This is especially true given that the former Prussian main residence in Heidelberg was destroyed by the war of the Palatinate Succession. During the reign of Johann Wilhelms, Düsseldorf was able to experience a considerable economic, cultural and urban development through the presence of the splendid court, which continued under the leadership of Kurfürst Karl Theodor of the Palatinate, which founded castles, collections, institutes and had the Carlstadt built. The painting gallery, which was also sponsored by Karl Theodor, was founded by Johann Wilhelm and was renowned and renowned. However, Düsseldorf lost the status of head residence in Heidelberg in 1718. In 1720 this function was transferred to Mannheim and in 1778 to Munich, from where Karl Theodor ruled the territories of Kurpfalz-Bavaria and Jülich-Berg. Another brief blossom of the city took place under the Princely Town Hall Johann Ludwig Franz Graf von Goltstein. In 1769 Düsseldorf became the seat of the Jülich-Bergisches Oberappellationgerichtshof.
In 1757, the city was seized by the French in the Seven Years War and captured by Herzog Ferdinand von Braunschweig by capitulation after the battle of Krefeld in 1758. In the wake of the coalition wars unleashed by the French Revolution, Düsseldorf surrendered to the French Revolutionary Army in 1795 and remained under French occupation until it was returned to Kurpfalz-Bavaria in the peace of Lunéville in 1801.
The fortifications were then cleared under the contract. However, as a result of a change of territory, which was laid down in the Treaty of Schönbrunn and the Treaty of Brno between Kurpfalz-Bavaria, Prussia and France, the city regained French influence from 1806 onwards. Before the exchange of territory, Kurfürst had Maximilian IV. let the world-famous collection of paintings, which was a state property of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, be withdrawn and illegally incorporated into the Bavarian art property. Düsseldorf became the capital of the Grand Duchy of Berg. The Grand Duchy, on the basis of the Rhine documents, ceased to exist as a sovereign state of the Holy Roman Empire, allied with France, and in fact existed until the end of 1813. The Grand Dukes were Joachim Murat until 1808, then Napoleon himself, and from 1809 under Napoleon's reign his minor nephew Napoléon Louis Bonaparte. Significant social and administrative reforms were introduced under the new government. In 1810, Napoleon introduced the civil code in the mountains, which brought with it, among other things, the breakthrough welcomed by Heinrich Heine towards equality for Jews. Demanding measures for urban renewal and beautification have been carried out, especially according to designs by landscape architect Maximilian Friedrich Weyhe. This is how to plant the New Avenue, the later Royal Salle, and planted Boulevard Napoléon, the later Heinrich Heine avenue for the first time as an elegant esplanade. the Hofgarten was further developed into an English landscape garden. Nevertheless, the Grand Duchy was ultimately only relevant to France as a satellite and buffer state and a resource for financial revenues and troop deployments in the context of its imperialist expansion. Moreover, the Grand Duchy has become increasingly in a severe economic crisis, because the French tariffs imposed by the continental ban on its western and northern borders have divided it from important market areas. The turn brought about the international battle at Leipzig, in which the French troops and senior officials left the Grand Duchy of Mount.
Prussian provincial town and industrialization
The Grand Duchy of Mount, abandoned by the French, was occupied by Prussian troops at the end of 1813 and administered by Prussian officials as General Governor of Mount interim. On the basis of the reorganization of Europe, which was negotiated at the Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III took office. the territory and its capital Düsseldorf were finally in possession on 5 April 1815. From 21 April 1815 it was legally part of Prussia. Düsseldorf became the seat of the district of Düsseldorf in 1816. Duesseldorf itself was initially a district-free city, but already in 1820 the city was integrated into the district of Düsseldorf. On 22 April 1816 the district government of Düsseldorf began its work. With the creation of the Rhine province, Düsseldorf became the seat of the state capital in 1822 and the seat of the provincial council in 1823.
After more than 400 years of integration in Prussia, Duesseldorf had lost the status of state capital and thus all the state government authorities. Düsseldorf was thus only the center of a province and a city of civil servants, surrounded by a closed ring of extensive parks after the fortifications, followed by a first Classicist extension. According to contemporary descriptions, during the Biedermeier period the city offered a relatively harmonious picture of the city, as Carl Julius Weber remarked: "The cheerful Düsseldorf enjoys a double taste when you come from the dark Cologne." However, the political and administrative significance of the city due to the loss of capital functions was not as high as the rank of spiritual and artistic life at the time, which was decisive for the re-establishment of the Düsseldorf Academy of Art (1819) and the Dusseldorf painter's post. from 1819 to 1918, and recorded her reputation as an artistic and garden town. During the pre-March and the German Revolution, the city's bourgeois milieus, with the celebrities Lorenz Cantador, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Ferdinand Lassalle and Hugo Wesendonck, were a focal point of the evolving democratic and working-class movement.
From the mid-1830s onwards, the social and economic upheaval triggered by industrialization took place in the small Prussian provincial town. The replacement of the Cologne Stacking Law by the Mainz Act (1831), the steamship on the increasingly regulated Rhine, the establishment of a free port (1831) and the installation of the first West German railway lines (1838) created the conditions for the development of Düsseldorf to the industrial city. The Steam Shipping Society for the Lower and Central Rhine between Rotterdam and Mannheim was founded in Düsseldorf in 1836. In 1837, the first trade exhibition took place in Flinger Strasse. In addition to the provincial trade exhibition for Rheinland and Westphalia, which was held in 1852, a foundation for later development into the city of trade fairs took place. From 1850 onwards, the first steel mills settled in Oberbilk, among others. Numerous other industrial plants followed, such as the Gerresheimer glass factory. However, until 1870 the textile industry still dominated. Dusseldorf has had a professional fire service since 1872.
In 1872, Düsseldorf again became circular free. By 1880, it had six districts: the Old Town (the original Düsseldorf) with narrow and irregular streets and the two estuaries of the northern and southern Düsseldorf, the Carlstadt on the south side of the Old Town (built in 1767), the nearby New Town, built in 1690-1716, the Friedrichstadt on the south-east end, the royal city and finally Pempelfort in the north and north-east. In 1880, the Rheinisch-Westphalian trade exhibition took place in Düsseldorf, which attracted more than a million visitors and gave the city further growth momentum. According to the census of December 1, 1880, 95,458 people lived in the city on an area of 49 square kilometers. The city of Prussia, situated in a favorable position in the economic and geographical center, which had only a few important features from a political and economic point of view 50 years ago, was at the threshold of development as one of the most important major industrial and industrial centers thanks to the progressive industrialization of the country, the development of transport infrastructure, rapid population growth and the removal of customs barriers which had arisen with the realization of the German Customs Association from 1834 Cities of the German Reich, founded in 1871, whose federal framework now included Prussia as a member state. From 1880 to 1900, the population grew to more than double, with 215,000 inhabitants.
ascent to economic metropolis and decline
At the turn of the 20th century, Düsseldorf was a busy and rising industrial city. In 1902, a large trade, industrial and art exhibition was organized with more than 2500 exhibitors on a 70 hectare site on the banks of the Rhine, which was recognized worldwide. A good financial constitution, low taxes, and urban incentives attracted wealthy people and businesses from all over the empire. Thanks to the concentration of administrations and business services, the establishment of a stock exchange, large bank houses and a number of important industrial groupings, the city established itself as a "Ruhr" office at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1909 a Zeppelinflugfeld was established on the Golzheimer Heide. In the same year, the first large-scale congregations took place since the Middle Ages. The city grew by 62.5 km² and its population reached a total of 345,000 with an increase of about 63,000 inhabitants. In August 1910, the city took the opportunity to hold an international exhibition on urban development, whose successful projects contributed to the city’s urban planning exhibitions alongside major German cities, Chicago, Boston, London, Zurich, Copenhagen, Stockholm and Helsinki. The Düsseldorf City Exhibition for Rheinland, Westphalia and neighboring areas presented plans for the "millionaire city of Düsseldorf" in 1912. The American journalist and reformer Frederic C. Howe praised Düsseldorf's urban development as exemplary. The growth of the city seemed to be unstoppable for contemporaries. The outbreak of World War I hit Düsseldorf completely unprepared.
On July 31, 1914, the military took over the executive, and the following day, the general mobilization was announced. Soon, life in the city changed markedly. The Duesseldorf industry changed to war production and became one of the largest forges of arms in the empire. The city became a supply center and a lazaret site. In 1915 there were 46,000 reservists stationed in Düsseldorf, and in 1917 there were around 8,000 beds. As a result of economic decline, port traffic fell below 30% of pre-war levels. birth rates decreased by 42%; there was a shortage of food and clothing; mortality rates increased massively; More than 10,000 soldiers stopped returning. In June 1917 there were protests and looting of shops due to the hunger in the population. The state of siege has been announced several times.
On November 8, 1918, sailors from Cologne carried the November Revolution to the city. A provisional Labor and Soldier Council was formed, which, in cooperation with the City Council, was able to maintain public order. Following the Compiègne ceasefire, the end of the First World War, on 4 December 1918 Belgian troops occupied the left-Rhine districts. The spirit of heaven and the then self-employed Benrath were occupied by the British. The rest of the city lay in the demilitarized zone according to Article 42, 43 of the Treaty of Versailles. The soldiers formally left the Council of Workers and Soldiers, and the Council of Workers reformed.
From January 7 to January 9, 1919, following strikes, the occupation of newspaper editorials, and a mass demonstration against the Ebert-Scheidemann government, a Council of Workers took power from members of the Spartacus Association and the USPD. These groups were aimed at a Russian-style revolution. The main railway station, the police board and the telephone office were occupied. Some 150 inmates were released from Ulmer Höh prison. Lord Mayor Oehler, Governmental President Kruse, and several other public figures have been able to rescue themselves into the Belgian upper house of parliament, while other respected citizens have been taken hostage. On January 10, the city officials quit their job in protest. A board of directors of the Labor Council declared the appointment of Karl Schmidtchens as mayor. There have been strikes and bloody clashes in Graf-Adolf Street, causing numerous deaths and serious injuries. After five weeks, on February 28, 1919, the city was captured by the Free Corps and the Council of Enforcement was removed. However, armed conflicts between austerity and reactionary free-range forces continued until mid-April 1919, especially during the general strike movement at the Ruhr from 8 to 13 April. The Upper Bilk district was heavily fought, and it could only be conquered with artillery support. Until 1933, Düsseldorf remained in large part a "red" city in Prussia, characterized by the labor movement, which had become a republic in the German Empire in 1918, when the Hohenzollern monarchy was overthrown as a free state of Prussia.
On 8 March 1921, around noon, French and Belgian troops entered and occupied Düsseldorf and other Ruhr towns. The reason for this was the refusal of the Reichsregierung to recognize repairs from the Versailles contract amounting to Goldmark 269 billion. Two years later, the French began occupying the Ruhr area from their bridge heads in Duisburg and Duesseldorf. The occupation ended on 1 September 1925, when the German Government adopted the Dawes plan. On this occasion, Reichstag President Paul von Hindenburg came to Düsseldorf and gave a patriotic speech to some 50,000 listeners in the Rhine stadium.
In 1926, the GeSoLei was the largest exhibition of the Weimar Republic with 7.5 million visitors in the and the designated High Court.
In 1929, the district of Düsseldorf grew to a large extent in the new district of Düsseldorf-Mettmann, while the northern part was beaten to the towns of Duisburg and Mülheim. Düsseldorf-Mettmann was renamed Mettmann County in the 1975 district reform.
On April 13, 1931, the trial began in Düsseldorf, one of the most spectacular criminal cases in the Weimar Republic. Peter Kürten, a serial killer who had resided in Düsseldorf since 1894 to 1921 and since 1925, was tried by the tabloid press for his preference for the blood of his numerous victims and called the "Vampir von Düsseldorf". The trial, which also received great international attention - to which ninety foreign correspondents had spoken - ended on April 21, 1931 with a death sentence executed in Cologne on July 2, 1931. In Germany, the event triggered a renewed debate on the admissibility of the death penalty. The criminal case inspired the director Fritz Lang to his strip M - a city is looking for a murderer, one of the first sound movies.
The Time of Nazism and World War II
After the transfer of power to the National Socialists, the first burning of "unwanted literature" by the German student community, including books by Heinrich Heiner, occurred on April 11, 1933 in Duesseldorf. Friedrich Karl Florian, the head of the NSDAP, supported the mass remembrance of Albert Leo Schlageter at the Schlageter National Monument, which had already been erected in 1931, as well as the reorganization of the staff of the city administration and the authorities. The former police president Hans Langels (Center Party) was removed and replaced by the SS group leader Fritz Weitzel. Many opponents of the regime were arrested, mistreated or killed. Düsseldorf was the capital of the Gaus Düsseldorf (1930-1945) and the seat of numerous Nazi associations and security police institutions: the Düsseldorf State Police Headquarters, the West High Command and Police Officer (from 1938), the Inspector of the Security Police and the SD, the SS upper section West, the SD upper section West, the SA Group Niederrhein, SS-Standarte, an HJ-Banns (No. 39, upper area West, Ruhr-Niederrhein area), from 1936 an army location administration and a Wehrmacht commando. Among the culturally political "highlights" were the propaganda-like Reichsexhibition of the Creative People (1937) and degenerated music (1938).
On November 10, 1938, the synagogues were burned down in the Pogromnacht on the Kasernstrasse and in Benrath, the Jewish population of the city was persecuted and at least 18 people were murdered. The deportation of almost 6000 Jews from all over the county was carried out by the "Jewish unit" of the head of state police in Düsseldorf. On 27 October 1941, the first train with a total of 1003 Jews from Düsseldorf and Lower Rhine drove from the freight station Derendorf to the German concentration camps in occupied Poland (see Jewish life in Düsseldorf). More than 2,200 Jews from Düsseldorf were murdered. In 1944, some 35,000 foreign civilian workers, several thousand prisoners of war and concentration camp prisoners were living in the approximately 400 camps in Düsseldorf and were forced to work.
Since 1987, the memorial and memorial center in Duesseldorf, formerly the police headquarters, has been commemorating the victims of Nazism in Düsseldorf on the Mühlenstraße (Stadthaus). There are also numerous memorials for victims of Nazism in Düsseldorf.
In the Second World War, the first bombs fell on Düsseldorf in 1940. The first large - scale attack occurred in the night of August 1, 1942. Allied air strikes caused more than 5000 civilian deaths by 1945. About half of the buildings were destroyed, about 90 percent were damaged. Most of the Rhine bridges, most roads, flood dykes, underpasses and overflows, as well as the urban drainage network were largely destroyed. The amount of rubble was estimated at about ten million cubic meters. As of February 28, 1945, Düsseldorf has been involved in the formation of the Ruhrkessel for seven weeks as a front town with American permanent fire from the left bank of the Rhine and in March.
In April, a number of Duesseldorf citizens of resistance to attorney Karl August Wiedenhofen tried to obtain the appointment of police president August Korreng in order to hand over the city to the Allies without a fight. The attempted coup succeeded first, but was then betrayed. After the liberation of Korrengs by line-minded forces of Gauleiter Friedrich Karl Florian, who had five of the members of the resistance shoot down by standing law (including Jürgens), the last two members escaped lawyer Wiedenhofen and architect Aloys Odenthal, reaching the American forces approaching the east of the city, and finally destroying the city by a large-scale air attack to avoid
Reconstruction and development of the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia
On April 17, 1945, units of the U.S. Army from Mettmann occupied Düsseldorf almost without a fight. Only about half of the inhabitants lived in the largely destroyed city, which came under the British military administration as part of Germany's division into occupation zones, which established a German local government in June 1945. At the end of the fighting there were still about 235,000 people in Düsseldorf and at the end of 1945 there were already 394,765 inhabitants in the city. Following preliminary decisions at the London Conference of Foreign Ministers, on 23 August 1946, the British established the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and Düsseldorf as the capital of the country, as a successor to the state of Prussia, which is still a de jure free state, in order to remove the country's important industrial resources from the political influence of the Soviet Union and France. Geographical centrality, in particular the increased function as an economic decision-making center ("desk of the Ruhr area"), and the existence of undestroyed administrative structures, were decisive in determining Düsseldorf as the political center of the new country. Approximately 70,000 dwellings were made available through emergency housing programs until 1947. In 1947 a first trade fair took place in Düsseldorf. In 1949, the founding year of the Federal Republic of Germany, the population of Düsseldorf almost reached pre-war levels, and systematic reconstruction began in the early 1950s. From 1949 to 1952, Düsseldorf was the seat of the International Ruhr Authority, a precursor to the European Coal and Steel Community. Thanks to the marketing association Igedo and its proximity to the textile industry, the exhibition and exhibition grounds at the Ehrenhof were able to assert itself as a new location for fashion trade during this time with the sales and fashion week in Düsseldorf.
The 1950 plan laid the foundations for the further development of the city over the next few decades, which was supposed to change the city's image and traffic management significantly, largely in accordance with the model of the city that is just for cars. Numerous roads have been widened and buildings destroyed by two to three floors higher. From the mid-1950s onwards the first high-rise buildings were built. Düsseldorf became the administrative city. However, Düsseldorf remained an important industrial location until the 1980s. Due to its proximity to the Ruhr area and to the former capital of Bonn, numerous associations and interest representatives from the steel sector settled in the city. The 1960's and 1970's brought major changes. The city had the highest population in its history. In 1961, Garath was the site of a completely new district in the form of a trabant town on the southern outskirts of the city. In 1965, Düsseldorf became a university town. In 1970 the new theater was opened, in 1971 the New Fair and in 1978 the new Tonhalle. In 1975, the largest municipal population since 1929. Two new Rhine bridges were built and a metro was built, the first of which was opened in 1981.
In the 1980s, further urban development projects were used to transform the city’s image once again in a lasting way, the new construction of the Landtag, the development of the media harbor and the construction of the Rhine tunnel, which was completed until the 1990s. Since 1993, car traffic has been flowing underground and the old town has returned to the Rhine with the Rhine river promenade. In the 1990s, a new office, business and leisure district developed in the Media Port. In 1996 a major fire destroyed a terminal at the Duesseldorf airport. The airport and the connection to the city were completely redesigned. Work was completed in 2003.
On 27 July 2000, ten people were injured, some of them life - threatening, and one pregnant woman lost her unborn child. After an arson attack on the New Synagogue in Duesseldorf on 2 October 2000, former Chancellor Gerhard Schröder appealed to the German public in which he called for the "uprising of decent". On 25 May 2009 the city received the title of "Place of Diversity" awarded by the Federal Government.
Düsseldorf is declared debt-free by the municipal administration, but this is called into question by the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia and its statistics office. Different views arise from different assessments and are also motivated by party politics at the country and city level. As at 31 December 2013, the city had a total debt of EUR 383 million. This makes Düsseldorf the least indebted district-free city in North Rhine-Westphalia.
After Bilk, Derendorf and Golzheim were already consigned to Düsseldorf in 1384, Hamm in 1394 and Volmerswerth in 1487, the last century in 1909, 1929 and 1975 saw the introduction of territorial reforms which were designed to promote urban development and more efficient management of the industrialization began in the second half of the 19th century and again in the 1950s to 1970s, strong growing and growing region of Düsseldorf. More specifically, from 1908 onwards, the following towns, municipalities and municipalities were integrated into Düsseldorf (the figures in brackets show the increase in area):
- on 1 April 1908
- Wersten, formerly part of the county of Himmelgeist-Wersten (3,57 km²);
- on 1 April 1909
- Stockum, formerly part of the rural community of Lohausen (3.72 km²),
- Rath (14.23 km²),
- city of Gerresheim (5.35 km²),
- Eller (10.68 km²),
- heavenly spirit (7.04 km²),
- Heerdt including the residential areas of Oberkassel, Niederkassel and Lörick (13.52 km²); and
- parts of the rural community of Ludenberg (4,37 km²);
- on 1 August 1929
- City of Kaiserswerth (3.27 km²),
- Lohausen (10.57 km²),
- Benrath, including the residential areas of Itter, Holthausen, Hassels, Reisholz, Urdenbach and Garath, with the new district of Hellerhof (26.63 km²), split in 1971,
- parts of Wittlaer (41 ha),
- parts of limestone (91 ha),
- parts of Eckamp (90 ha),
- parts of Schwarzbach (70 ha),
- parts of Ludenberg (4,44 km²),
- parts of Erkrath (2 ha) and
- Parts of Büderich (1 ha)
- 1 January 1975
- whiting including limestone (23.17 km²),
- city of Angermund (8.32 km²),
- Hubbelrath with the villages Dorf, Stratenhof and Rotthäuser Weg (11.92 km²),
- Municipality of Monheim without Hitdorf1 (26.69 km²),
- parts of the municipality of Hasselbeck-Schwarzbach with the settlement of Knittkuhl (2 km²),
- subbach district of the city of Erkrath (4,98 km²) and
- the area around the Elbe lake of the city of Hilden (5.53 km²)
- 1 January 1980
- parts of the town of Ratingen (48 ha)
1 The Monheim district of Hitdorf (5.30 km²) was incorporated into Leverkusen. Due to the law on changes of territory in the reintegration area of Düsseldorf, Monheim was reclassified as an independent city with effect from 1 July 1976. Only a small part of the Urdenbacher Kampe remained with Düsseldorf. The former Hitdorf district remained with Leverkusen.
On December 31, 2012, the population of Düsseldorf was 593,682 inhabitants, according to the 2011 census. Of these, 308,014 were women (51.88%) and 285,668 were men (48.11%). The proportion of foreigners was 16.55 %, i.e. (h) 98,235 inhabitants. In 2006, the Turks (15,191 people) were the largest group of non-Germans, followed by the Greeks (10,591) and the Italians (6,890). Among non-European countries of origin, Asians (excluding Turks) make up the largest group with 14,639, including Japanese with 4,951, Iranians with 1,419, Chinese with 1,375, and Koreans with 1,003. The number of Chinese residents in the state capital is rising sharply as a result of the establishment of some 300 Chinese companies (as of 2011). As of December 31, 2010, Düsseldorf had the largest share of foreigners in comparison with the other cities and municipalities in North Rhine-Westphalia. According to the Department of Statistics, 19.3 % of Dusseldorf citizens had a foreign passport. Düsseldorf was home not only to most Japanese (59% of all Japanese in North Rhine-Westphalia), but also to most Swedes, Ghanaians, South Koreans, Irish, French, and Moroccans.
With the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century. The population of Düsseldorf grew strongly in the 16th century. In 1882, the city had a population of around 20,000, and in 1882 it crossed the border of 100,000, making Düsseldorf the capital. In 1905, the city had 250,000 inhabitants, and by 1933 the number doubled to 500,000. In 1962, the population reached its historic peak at 705,391. In the following years, however, the number of inhabitants fell sharply again. This trend could not be reversed by the municipal reorganization in the 1970s, which resulted in the integration of some surrounding municipalities into Düsseldorf. In the 1980's and 1990's, the population of 570,000 inhabitants was commuted to the surrounding communities. It was only at the turn of the century that the trend turned. On 30 June 2005, the "official population" for Düsseldorf was 573,449 (only headquarters and after comparison with the other regional offices), according to an update of the Nordrhein-Westfalen's information and technology business.
On July 20, 2014, the 600,000 was launched. Dusseldorf was born. For the first time since 1978 there are again more than 600,000 inhabitants in Düsseldorf. This is the finding of the Statistics Office. The population is forecast to be 611,970, 623,600 and 645,000 in 2030. In terms of population density, Düsseldorf ranks second among the cities of North Rhine-Westphalia with 2730.7 inhabitants per km² behind Herne and ahead of Oberhausen (stand: 31 December 2012).
According to the population register of the city of Düsseldorf, which since 2016 has generated its population from the statistics section of the population register instead of the 1987 update of the census, a population of 635,704 was recorded as at 31 December 2016. On the same date, the State Statistical Office determined the official population of 613,230, i.e. 22,474 less than the population register. According to the population register, the population at 31 December 2018 was 642,304.
The dialect spoken in Düsseldorf in only a few milieu is part of the Limburg region, which is bordered by the Benrather line (maache-maake border) to the Ripuaran, also spoken in parts of Düsseldorf. The Uerdinger line (nic-ick border) in the north distinguishes it from the North of Lower Franconia. Today, Platt is mostly only spoken or understood by the older generation. In the late 1990s, the original Düsseldorf platter was replaced by a so-called Regiolekt, called Rheinisches Deutsch.
At the end of 2018, 28.6% of the population were Roman Catholic, 16.9% were Protestant. 54.5% belong to other denominations or religions or are non-religious. Düsseldorf has the third largest Jewish community in Germany, with around 7000 members after Berlin and Munich. According to the results of the census on 9 May 2011, 202,370 inhabitants of Düsseldorf belonged to the Catholic Church. 131,880 inhabitants were evangelical, 2,900 Protestant-Liberal, 20,260 Orthodox and 4,560 Jewish. 220,790 inhabitants were classified under the heading ‘Other’ or ‘not belonging to a public religious society’. According to a calculation of the censuses for those with a migrant background, the Muslim population in Düsseldorf was 8.3% in 2011 (approximately 48,900 persons).
Düsseldorf belonged from the very beginning to the archbishop of Cologne and was subordinate to the archdiaconate of the cathedral. Although the Reformation initially took root by a majority, Catholics remained in the city. They belonged to the Neuss dekanat until 1627, when Düsseldorf became the seat of a dekanat. The early fall of the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1813 prevented the founding of a diocese in Düsseldorf, which Napoléon suggested. Herzog Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg had already sought such a solution for his main residence.
Since 1394 Apollinaris of Ravenna, whose relics lie in the Apollinaris shrine of the town church of St. Lambertus, has been revered as the patron saint and patron of Düsseldorf. On the occasion of his name day on July 23, the Düsseldorf "Schützenfest" with the Biggest Kirmes am Rhein takes place. A less well-known highlight of these celebrations is the procession with the Apollinaris shrine. More people are participating in the central head-to-head procession of all the parish communities in Düsseldorf (except Dekanat Benrath) through the Old Town and Carlstadt.
In Düsseldorf, there were about 191,000 Catholics in 2013, corresponding to a population of about 32%. At the end of 2018, 28.6% of the population was Roman Catholic. Due to the lack of priests and the decline of church members, the cooperation of several parishes in the fields of maritime care began in the 1980s. Today, the parish associations exist in Duesseldorf
- the parish community of Angerland/Kaiserswerth with the parishes of St. Agnes, St. Lambertus, St. Remigius and St. Suitbertus,
- parish association Flingern/Düsseltal with St. Elisabeth and Vinzenz, St. Maria Himmelfahrt and St. Paulus,
- The Below- and Oberbilk Shelter Area, Friedrichstadt and Eller-West with St. Anthony, St. Apollinaris, St. Josef, St. Martin, St. Peter and St. Pius X.
- parish community of Eller-Lrenal feld with St. Gertrud, St. Michael and St. Augustinus,
- The St. Maria Rosenkranz, St. Maria in the Benden, St. Nikolaus, St. Joseph and St. Hubertus are the soul-care unit of the Rhine Arc in Düsseldorf, and
- Church Association Benrath-Urdenbach with St. Cäcilia and Heart Jesus.
Another nine of the 33 parishes in Düsseldorf, St. Lambertus Düsseldorf, St. Trinity, St. Anthony and Benedictus, Holy Family, St. Francis Xaverius, St. Margareta, St. Bonifatius, St. Anthony and Elisabeth and St. Matthew, created by the merger of neighboring parish communities, stretches over several neighborhoods like the Sagittarians. All parishes except one belong to one of the five Dekanate North, Mitte/Heerdt, East, South and Benrath in the city of Düsseldorf. Town decant is usually the priest of St. Lambertus. A special case is the parish church of St. Mariä Himmelfahrt in Unterbach, which has a branch in the neighboring Erkrath-Unterfeldhaus and with St. Johannes the baptist in Erkrath since 1 January 2010 forms a consortium of sailors in the Dekanat Hilden, district dekanat Mettmann of the Archbishop of Cologne.
Since 2006, the Catholic Association of the City of Carlstadt has been holding the Maxhaus as a Catholic meeting and event center with religious, cultural and musical offerings.
The Reformation was able to win part of its way from 1527, mainly due to the reform Catholicism of Herzog Wilhelm V. In addition to the Psalm song, communion was introduced in both forms in the Abbey Church of St. Lambertus. This was the foundation of the Lutheran community. In 1571, the court reversed, repressing the Protestants. The Lutheran and reformed communities founded in 1573 met secretly after that, until the repression ended in 1590. From 1609 onwards, the Protestants were able to hold their services in public: the reformed people in their predigthouse on Andreasstraße, the Lutherans on Berger Strasse. In 1614, oppression resumed under the Roman Catholic ruler Wolfgang Wilhelm. Until the mid-seventeenth century, the Protestants could only secretly hold their services. Then they were given the right to freedom of religion. The first Lutheran sermon in Duesseldorf was held in the Predigthaus at Bolkerstraße, which was preserved in 1651. In 1683 the reformed church was able to build its own church, which in 1916 was named Neanderkirche. The tower was completed in 1687. The Lutheran church was built in the same year on Berger Strasse. In 1611 , Duesseldorf became the seat of its own class (church county), when the Protestant community of Düsseldorf belonged first to the Cologne class and later to the Bergisches Synod (1589).
After the transition to Prussia, in 1825 (→ on the union in Prussia: The two Protestant parishes belong to the "Evangelical parish Düsseldorf", which belonged to the superintendent Düsseldorf. In 1815 Düsseldorf had become the seat of the Prussian Supreme Consistency of the province of Jülich-Kleve-Berg, but it moved to Cologne in 1816. There was a synod in Duesseldorf in 1827.
The Protestant community of Düsseldorf grew constantly and other churches were built, such as the St. John's Church at Martin-Luther-Platz (1881), the Church of Christ (1899), the Church of Peace (1899) and the old Matthaikirche (1899) as well as the Cross Church (19) 10). In 1905 the parish of Eller-Wersten was formed from parts of the municipalities of Urdenbach and Gerresheim. There were other church communities in the city area through congregations. On 1 October 1934 the headquarters of the Consistency of the Rhineland Provincial Church of Prussia and the Protestant Church in the Rhineland were moved from Koblenz to Düsseldorf. Today's church administration is located on Hans-Böckler-Strasse in the Golzheim district. There is also a "House of the Church" in the Bastion Street in the Carlstadt. In 1936, an association was founded for all communities in Dusseldorf. In 1948, the church parish in Düsseldorf was divided. There have also been changes in church communities in the outlying districts.
In 1964, the circle of the church in Düsseldorf was divided into the congregations of Düsseldorf-Mettmann, Düsseldorf-Nord, Düsseldorf-Ost and Düsseldorf-Süd. The circle of churches in Düsseldorf-Mettmann comprises churches outside the city of Düsseldorf. The three church circles in the city area formed the Church Circus Association in Düsseldorf within the Protestant Church in the Rhineland until mid-2007. On June 16, 2007, the synod of the newly formed church circle in Duesseldorf met for the first time. It is the result of the merger of the church circles of Düsseldorf-Nord, Düsseldorf-Ost and Düsseldorf-Süd and represents 24 Protestant municipalities, representing 116,550 Protestants of the capital, who in 2013 accounted for about 20 percent of the population. At the end of 2018, 16.9 percent of the population were Protestant.
Due to the decline of church members and visitors, more and more churches are being closed, since 2001 the Protestants have dedicated 20 of the 49 churches.
In response to the unification of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia and some reformed municipalities to the UNITED Protestant Church in Prussia by cabinet orders of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. In 1817 and 1830 the Evangelical-Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church of Prussia was formed. The Altlutherans insisted on the recognition of the Lutheran commitment. They demanded unrestricted Lutheran services, constitution and teaching. After a hard period of persecution by the state and with the approval of the new Protestant Church of the Union, they were able to join King Friedrich Wilhelm IV in 1841. and have been recognized. From 1844 on Lutheran services were celebrated again in Düsseldorf in a community of Lutherans of the municipality before the forced union, as well as immigrants from Saxony and Bavaria. In 1882, the municipality consecrated its own house of worship on the Kreuzstrasse, which on 12 June 1943 was the victim of an air attack. In 1884 the municipality was recognized as a legal entity by the Prussian State. Since the property on the Kreuzstraße after the war could no longer be built for urban planning reasons, the municipality bought its present property and on 2 April 1956 consecrated its Erlöserkirche in the Eichendorffstraße in Stockum. Today the church community belongs to the church district of Rhineland of the self-employed Evangelical-Lutheran Church (SELK). Silvia Sommerlath, the former queen of Sweden, Silvia of Sweden, was confirmed in this church by superintendent Nagel.
In Duesseldorf, the Orthodox Church Commission is based in Duesseldorf with municipalities of
- Greek Orthodox Church in Hassels, Am Schönenkamp,
- Orthodox Georgian church in Hamm on the ferry route, celebrating its services in the Jan Wellem Chapel,
- German-speaking Orthodox parochy on the sacred heroic rules in Wersten, Werstener Field,
- Russian Orthodox Church,
- Romanian Orthodox Church and Serbian Orthodox Church,
- Coptic church in Grafenberg on the Pöhlenweg; and
- Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
Anglicans and Old Catholics
The Anglican Church, with the old Catholic Church in full (full communion), is located with a community in Rotterdam Street on the North Park. The parish church of the old Catholic community of Düsseldorf is the Thomaskirche church, the former Klarenbachkapelle in the Steubenstraße in Reisholz.
In addition to the large Christian denominations, many free churches with municipalities are represented in Düsseldorf. These include:
- Apostolese community with its German headquarters and the main municipality in the city center on the Cantadorstraße and the municipality in Eller (Klein Eller),
- Pentecost movement with the Christian center of Düsseldorf Bruchstraße in Flingern,
- Baptisten with the municipalities on the Luisenstraße in the Friedrichstadt and the Ackerstrasse in Flingern, and the Evangelical-Freikirchischer parish Christophstraße on the Werstener Strasse in Bilk,
- Evangelical Methodist Church in the Matthias Church in Lichtenbroich,
- Free Protestant community in the center of the city on Bendemannstraße,
- medical army,
- Mr. Herrnhuter brothers in Heerdt,
- Pentecost movement in the Jesus House on the Grafenberger Allee, and
- Mosaic community currently in Derendorf.
The Düsseldorf municipalities organized a free church day in the Robert Schumann Room in 1990 and in 2001 in the Südpark.
The special Christian communities include Jehovah's Witnesses, who are represented in 18 municipalities and four groups in Düsseldorf. Meetings (services of worship) are held in five royal halls in the city of Düsseldorf. The largest hall center (with four rooms) is located in Flingern-Süd. In addition to several meetings in German (two meetings), meetings are also held in English, Russian, Polish, Greek, Italian, Romanian, Croatian/Serbian, Tagalog, Chinese and German sign language. In the Royal Hall Center of Eller (with two rooms), the meetings are held in Russian, Spanish, Hindi and Twi, as well as in German. Other royal halls are located in Oberkassel, Pempelfort and Hellerhof. Meetings are held here in German (three meetings), Japanese and Vietnamese. There will also be several special events, such as: B. a bible exhibition, preferably held in the Royal Hall of Flingern-Süd.
Other churches and special Christian communities
The community of Christians, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormones), the New Apostolic Church with five municipalities in Benrath, Derendorf, Eller, Flingern and Gerresheim are also represented in Düsseldorf. There is also the Russian-speaking Jewish-Messianic community Beit Hesed in Düsseldorf, which also publishes the German-language magazine Kol Hesed.
The Jewish community of Düsseldorf is the largest in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third largest in Germany with about 7500 members. The new synagogue was built in 1958 and is located on the Zietenstraße in the Golzheim district. She is guarded by the police 24 hours a day. Previous buildings were the old synagogue and the Great Synagogue in the barracks street on the present plot of the trade sheet publishing, which was set on fire at the November pogroms in 1938 and then stopped.
The municipality, as a public body, is a single municipality in accordance with its statutes. This means that all religious directions are respected. The services of God correspond to the Orthodox rite. Until July 2011, Rabbiner was Julien Chaim Soussan, one of Germany's youngest municipal councilors. 90% of the members of the municipality come from the former Soviet Union. The municipality includes: a. a kindergarten and an elementary school, the Yitzhak Rabin school. It is a state-recognized primary school and a Jewish confession school that provides a more cozy diet for children. In a nationwide comparative study, it was found that the school is one of the 25 best primary schools in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The municipality also has a sports club (Makkabi), a youth center and a cemetery.
There are also a number of Muslim communities in the state capital. However, they do not form a single association but are organized according to the national affiliation of their members as Turkish, Bosnian, Moroccan and other mosque clubs. The largest Turkish association, the Turkish Islamic Union of the Institute of Religion e. V. has three mosques in Düsseldorf. They are located in Lörick, Eller and Derendorf. In total there are about 20 mosques in Düsseldorf. According to the various sponsoring associations, Friday prayers are attended by some 4000 believers, with the two largest mosques in Derendorf and Flingern hosting up to 1000 participants. It may be discussed. a. in Turkish, Arabic, Berber, Bosnian, Albanian, Romani and German.
Aleviten is also represented in Düsseldorf with a municipality in the district of Eller. The country of origin of almost all Alevis is Turkey. In addition to religious work, cultural and musical projects are also being implemented in the Düsseldorf community. In North Rhine-Westphalia, the German Alevian community has the status of an independent religious community recognized under the Basic Law and co-ordinates the Alevian religious education as a regular school subject. The Aleviten in Düsseldorf are also members of this umbrella organization.
The only Buddhist temple in the Jōdo-Shinshu tradition in Europe is located in the lower-left Rhine district of Niederkassel, on the site of the Japanese Ekō House. It is built in Japanese style as a concrete structure and surrounded by a Japanese garden. In 1993, the Japanese founded the Japanese Cultural Center with the Ekō House. It is also a traditional Japanese house for tea ceremonies, has a library and a kindergarten.
There are also a number of Buddhist centers in Düsseldorf with all the renowned traditions of Buddhism. A selection: Rigpa (Tibetan Buddhism, Teacher Sogyal Rinpoche), Amitabha Foundation (also Tibetan Buddhism), Chaneon Sangha (Zen Tradition) and Diamantweg Buddhism (Lama Ole Nydahl), and other Buddhist groups and centers. Thus the Buddhist groups in Düsseldorf offer a large offer in North Rhine-Westphalia.
In the 13th century, Düsseldorf was dominated by the bourgeois, which until 1806 were the highest and most powerful class in the city administration. Since 1303, a mayor has been called, and he was also a bourgeoisie at the beginning. In 1358 there was also a council, which divided itself partly into an old and a young council. The members were elected either for life (old council), or also annually (young council). A former representative was also involved in the administration of the city, which was entitled "Public Officer". Since about the 15th century, in addition to the above-mentioned bodies, there has also been a municipal committee of 12 people ("Twelve"), who took part in the election of the mayor and was involved in important decision-making, but did not really constitute a genuine civic participation. It was only in French time that there was an Munizipalrat, and since 1815 there was a municipal council with 30 members. Since 1856, it has been the "city councilors", later the councilors, whose total number has changed several times. The city was run by the Maire in French times, and was supported by three members. Since Prussia, the city's head of state has held the title of Mayor. In 1856, the Rheinische Stadteordnung was introduced.
During the Nazi era, the Mayor was appointed by the NSDAP. After World War II, the military government of the British occupation zone established a new mayor and in 1946 introduced the British-style municipal constitution. After that, there was a popular-elected "council of the city," whose members were called "city counsel." The Council initially elected from among its members the Lord Mayor as the town's chairman and representative, who held his duties on an honorary basis. The Council also elected a full-time Chief Executive from 1946 as Head of the City Council. In 1999, the dual head of the city administration was abandoned. Since then, there has been only the full mayor. He is Chairman of the Council, Head of the City Council and representative of the City. In 1999, he was first directly elected by the citizens.
Mayor since 1815
The Mayor is elected by the citizens in a general, direct, free, equal and secret ballot in accordance with the rules of the North Rhine-Westphalia municipal code. Since October 1, 1999, he has been the head of the city and is the chairman and representative of the council of the municipality. The mayor is in charge of the city administration, with the help of the city director, the comrade and the comrade, as well as five full-time associates.
The City Council elects three volunteer alternates, who are named mayors. In Duesseldorf, the general representative of the Mayor is called "City Director".
- 1815-1820: Engelbert Schramm
- 1820-1822: Lambert Josten
- 1822-1824: Joseph Molitor
- March-October 1824: Leopold Custodis
- 1824-1828: Friedrich Adolf Klüber
- 1828-1833: Philipp Schöller
- 1833-1848: Joseph von Fuchsius
- 1848-1849: Wilhelm Dietze
- 1849: Ludwig Viktor von Villers
- 1849-1876: Ludwig Hammers
- 1876-1886: Wilhelm von Becker
- 1886-1899: Ernst Heinrich Lindemann
- 1899-1910: Wilhelm Marx
- 1911-1919: Adalbert Oehler
- 1919-1924: Emil Köttgen
- 1924-1933: Robert Lehr, DNVP
- 1933-1937: Hans Wagenführ, NSDAP
- 1937: Otto Liederley, NSDAP
- 1937-1939: Helmut Otto, NSDAP
- 1939-1945: Carl Haidn, NSDAP
- April 3-17, 1945: Werner Keyßner, NSDAP
- 17 April - 18 September 1945: Wilhelm Filenbach
- 1945-1946: Walter Kolb, SPD
- 1946-1947: Karl Arnold, CDU
- 1947-1956: Josef Gockeln, CDU
- 1956-1959: Georg Glock, SPD
- 1960-1961: Willi Becker, SPD
- 28 March - 17 November 1961: Fritz Vomfelde, CDU
- 1961-1964: Peter Müller, CDU
- 1964-1974: Willi Becker, SPD
- 1974-1979: Klaus Bungert, SPD
- 1979-1984: Josef Kürten, CDU
- 1984-1994: Klaus Bungert, SPD
- 1994-1999: Marie-Luise Smeets, SPD
- 1999-2008: Joachim Erwin, CDU
- 2008-2014: Dirk Elbers, CDU
- 2014-2020: Thomas Geisel, SPD
- Since 2020: Stephan Keller, CDU
Election of Duesseldorf Mayor in 2020
Chief Municipal Directors 1946-1999
- 1946: Walter Kolb
- 1946-1964: Walther Hensel
- 1964-1976: Gilbert Just
- 1976-1987: Gerd Högener
- 1987-1994: Karl Ranz
- 1994-1999: Peter Hölz
2020 Council elections - Düsseldorf
Animal welfare here!
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
Animal welfare here!
There is a county representation in each district with 19 members. The President shall designate the mayor of the district. In 1975, these 'district parliaments' were created to increase the influence and design of citizens. The county councils will be elected by the district residents for five years each time they vote in local elections.
The district councils are to be heard on important matters concerning the district. In matters of the district, which are not a business of day-to-day administration and for which the Council of the City is not solely responsible, the district councils shall, in accordance with the local regulations, take decisions in accordance with the interests of the whole city and within the framework of the general guidelines adopted by the Council.
The city administration is responsible for all public tasks of the city and is headed by the mayor. The full-time assistant and comrade, together with the mayor, form the board of directors. The mayor is in charge of the meeting and decides on disagreements. Members are directly under the authority of the mayor and represent him in their council. They are local election officials. They shall be elected by the Council for a period of eight years.
The administration runs the operational business and implements the policy objectives under its own responsibility. The predictability, continuity and consistency of decisions and administrative action must be ensured. The heads of the administration must be accountable to the elected council. The definition of competences is laid down in the city constitution.
The administration in Düsseldorf is divided into nine departments (December). Various offices are assigned to the members. The offices are the lowest organizational units of the administration. The largest sites where the many offices provide their services are the town hall complex around the market square in the old town, the service center at the Willi-Becker-Allee at the main railway station and the Technical Town Hall in the Bilk district.
At the end of 2012, the total public debt of Düsseldorf amounted to EUR 872.2 million. That's 1,478 euros per inhabitant. Out of the 103 cities in Germany without a district, Düsseldorf was 100 in per capita debt. In other words, only three other circular cities had lower per capita debt.
For the financial year 2014, the City of Düsseldorf has estimated in the comprehensive statement of results a budget surplus in regular income and expenditure (including financial income and expenses) of EUR 3.1 million (EUR 5 per inhabitant). The city of Düsseldorf is thus one of only three non-urban cities in North Rhine-Westphalia (besides Krefeld and Münster), which has no budget deficit in the overall results plan in 2014.
|Blowing: "In the silver shade, the red lion of the Dukes of Mount, dressed, double-dressed, blue-crowned and upholstered, and holding a lowered blue anchor in his pens."|
|crest: The original coat of arms of the city of Düsseldorf - only with the anchor - was created at the same time as the city elevator. The anchor points to the relationship of the city and its citizens to the Rhine, the Rhine and the Rhine Valley. Since the end of the 17th century, this simple coat of arms was joined by a second seal, which was reproduced on the orders of the Duesseldorf Board of Directors since the middle of the 16th century. It shows the Mountain lion, the coat of arms of the Belgian Dukes, who keeps the anchor in his pine. Around the middle of the 18th century, this elaborately designed image had finally replaced the old city coat of arms. After numerous changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, the Heraldiker Otto Hupp liberated the coat of arms from later ingredients in 1938 and gave it the form it used today. |
The corresponding city flag is red and white, marked with the coat of arms.
In February 2002, for private and business purposes, a city coat of arms was created, which differs from the official city colors and can be used without the permission of the city administration. In the red and white split sign there is a silver double-strung, raised, silver-colored and reinforced lion with a lowered black anchor in the patient.
The city of Düsseldorf uses in official writings and publications a logo that indicates the Rhine in the city area of Düsseldorf in a square on the left and shows the mountain lion anchored in the right upper quadrant. The city logo is used in different colors, each of the currently eight decks is assigned a color tone.
In 2011, the city began a process of developing a brand of umbrella to improve its marketing and public perception. After a market core analysis, a public competition followed, resulting in more than 2,000 photo, video and text entries. In March 2012, a procedure for expressions of interest started to create a competition between creative agencies. The ensuing competition for the development of the umbrella brand was won by BBDO Proximity agency, which presented the logo of the new umbrella brand, the Emoticon :D, to the public on 26 November 2012. The Düsseldorf "smiling :D" is in red, the color of the mountain lion, and in the Helvetica font. In particular, it has the task of transporting "the emotional, friendly Düsseldorf". The procedures for the introduction of the new umbrella brand and its logo were accompanied by a public controversy.
Düsseldorf has eight classic town twinning partnerships:
- Reading (United Kingdom), since 1947/1988
- Chemnitz (Germany, Saxony), since 1988
- Haifa (Israel), since 1978/1988
- Warsaw (Poland), since 1989
- Moscow (Russia), since 1992
- of Chongqing (China), since 2004
- Palermo (Italy), since 2016
- Chiba (Japan), since 2019
Friendly relations continue to exist:
- Toulouse (France)
- Tenerife (Spain)
- Montreal (Canada)
- of Guangzhou (China)
- of Shenyang (China)
Culture and sights
Düsseldorf is also renowned for its culture, art and modern architecture. In addition to the large art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia and a number of other museums and galleries, there is also the internationally renowned Art Academy Düsseldorf, which has founded the Düsseldorf School of Paintings in the 19th century and the Düsseldorf School of Photography in the 20th century. Famous stages are represented in the city with the theater and the Kom(m)ödchen. In addition, some of Germany's popular musicians and poets were born or were based in the city. Major architects have not only realized their projects in the media harbor.
Classic and modern speech theater
Düsseldorf has a tradition of theater that goes back to the 16th century. The first theatrical events are scheduled for 1585. The current Duesseldorf Schauspielhaus with its modern curved architecture was completed in 1970. It is located on Gustaf Gründgens square, named after the former director. The biggest stage in Düsseldorf has a great reputation in the German-speaking area.
Other major theaters in the metropolis of North Rhine-Westphalia include the Forum Freies Theater, consisting of Juta (Youth Theater) and chamber plays, which offers a wide range of stage art, the Komödie Düsseldorf, a classic boulevard theater, the theater at the Kö, which is mainly comedy and modern theater and is run by the famous theater family Heinersdorff, the theater at Lügallee in Oberkassel, the KaBARett FLiN in Flingern and the Savoy theater. The theater of sound often plays in JUTA. It has been operating since 1987 and is currently being produced annually under the direction of Jörg Udo Lensing.
For children, the theater studio Takelgarn with comedy, cabaret, figures and children’s theater is particularly interesting. The puppet theater on Helmholtzstraße is aimed at children and adults alike as well as the Düsseldorf puppet theater. The latter was founded in 1956 and is located in the Palais Wittgenstein, which also houses other cultural projects.
opera, music theater and varieté
The Deutsche Oper am Rhein is also very traditional. It displays opera, operette and ballet at its two locations in Düsseldorf and Duisburg.
The Apollo Varieté, located below the Rheinkniebrücke bridge on the banks of the Rhine, offers classic theater of variety in the style of the early 20th century.
Built in 1925 as a planetarium, the Tonhalle Düsseldorf is the venue for concerts and other musical events in the fields of classical music, jazz, pop and cabaret.
The Capitol Theater is the largest theater in the state capital and offers a stage for changing musical and live entertainment.
The Kom(m)ödchen is the oldest cabaret stage in Germany. It was founded in 1946 by Kay and Lore Lorentz. Many later important cabaret members were able to prove their worth for the first time.
dance house NRW
The Danzhaus NRW is located in Düsseldorf, the institution offers a stage program as well as numerous courses.
Museums, exhibition institutes and libraries
The city has a wide range of exhibitions. Since 2001, the 18 city museums alone have attracted more than one million visitors every year, compared to 1.34 million in 2006. In addition, several private museums, collections and numerous galleries attract visitors. The most visited museum is the Aquazoo in the North Park.
Düsseldorf has a long tradition as an art city. The first large collection of paintings was already done by the Prince Johann Wilhelm to Pfalz-Neuburg, in short Jan-Wellem, and his wife Anna Maria de Medici. The collection was housed in the Düsseldorf painting gallery, one of the earliest independent museum buildings in the world, built between 1709 and 1714. Under Prince Maximilian IV, the later king Maximilian I. Joseph, the collection was largely taken to Munich in 1805 and formed the basis for the Old Pinakothek.
The Art Academy in Düsseldorf gained importance in the 19th century under the name of Düsseldorf as one of the most important training centers for landscape and genre painters. The Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen was founded in 1829 in order to offer artists trained in Düsseldorf a possibility to present their works in changing exhibitions.
Some exhibits of the Kurfürstendamm painting gallery and several works of the Düsseldorf painting school were taken over in the Museum Kunstpalast. It also contains graphics, drawings, paintings and sculptures from all the styles from the ancient to the 21st century. In addition to European exhibits, the collection also focuses on Japanese woodcuts and netsuke. It is integrated in the Ehrenhof complex, which also houses the NRW Forum.
The second peak in the development of Düsseldorf as an artistic city was in the second half of the 20th century. a. Joseph Beuys taught at the Academy of Art. Düsseldorf is the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia and home to the art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is divided into the K20 at the tomb, the K21 in the staging house and the Schmela-Haus in the mother-Ey-Strasse. It specializes in art of the 20th and 21st centuries, according to the name of the collections divided among the locations. The Kunsthalle Düsseldorf is located opposite the K20 at the Grabbeplatz and has its focus on contemporary national and international contemporary art. The KIT (Art in the Tunnel), which is part of the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, has a very unusual location. Located on the banks of the Mannesmann River, it is an underground exhibition space for contemporary art.
museums on literature, theater and film
Two museums in Düsseldorf are dedicated to poets. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is addressed by the Goethe Museum, which is located in the Jägerhof Castle in the north-eastern part of the courtyard. The large private collection, which is now considerably expanded, is spread over several floors. It includes the original inscription of Goethe's famous poem Gingo biloba.
Heinrich Heine, probably the most famous son of the city, is the Heinrich Heine Institute in Carlstadt. It shows you. a. original documents and writings from and on the legs, pieces from his estate as well as his dead mask.
The Film Museum is also located in the Carlstadt area with its cinema. The Theater Museum with the Dumont Lindemann Archive is located in the Hofgarten House in the Hofgarten.
Natural and Garden Art
The most visited museum in Düsseldorf, with more than 400,000 visitors per year, is the Aquazoo. It has been located in the north of the city in the North Park since the late 1980s. It was previously housed in a bunker opposite the zoopark. In addition to aquatic life, it also shows molluscs and geological exhibits. The Zoological Garden in Düsseldorf was destroyed in World War II and was not rebuilt.
Another attraction of the North Park is the Japanese garden, donated by the Japanese community, which opened in 1976. In 1904, however, Düsseldorf became the first German city to have a Japanese garden, which was located on the site of the Ehrenhof, also on the Rhine.
Düsseldorf is divided throughout the city by gardens, which is due to the vision of urban development during industrialization, which in turn developed the gardening facilities of the 18th and 19th centuries and founded Düsseldorf's reputation as a garden city. The Museum of European Gardening, which is part of the Schloss and Park Benrath Foundation, takes account of this, as does the Museum of Natural History, which presents the region's various habitats in Dioramen, from the Rhine to the highest ranch. In 1987, the Bundesgartenschau (BUGA) took place in Düsseldorf. Today the grounds of the exhibition are the Südpark.
permanent historical exhibitions
The City Museum in the Old Town has a large exhibition that traces the development of the city of Düsseldorf historically and chronologically. The Duesseldorf memorial and memorial commemorates the victims of Nazi rule in the 20th century. It is located in historical premises used during the Nazi period as offices, interrogation rooms and police detention centers, and includes the permanent exhibition "Persecution and Resistance in Düsseldorf 1933-1945".
Museum customs, technology and everyday life
Dusseldorf's classic customs include carnival. In the house of the Carnival, he is dedicated to the Carnival Museum in the old town. Also located in the old town is the Maritime Museum in the castle tower. It is located in the castle tower on the banks of the Rhine and shows the development of navigation on the Rhine from ancient times to modern times. The mustard museum recognizes the tradition of almost 300 years of mustard production. The Hetjens Museum (German Ceramics Museum) is located in the Palais Nesselrode in Carlstadt and is the only institute in the world to display ceramics from different cultures from all eras in a permanent exhibition. The Ehrenhof complex is home to the NRW Forum, which displays exhibitions on various topics for a limited period, in particular photographic works.
The Quadriennial took place for the third and provisional last time from 5 April to 10 August 2014. Under the leitmotif Beyond the morning several cultural institutes presented a cultural festival with special exhibitions and accompanying program.
The University and State Library (ULB) Düsseldorf was founded in 1965 until 1969 from the Library of the Medical Academy and was founded in 1970. The ULB has a central library and five other sites with a total of some 2.4 million media. There are about 23,000 regular users.
The city of Düsseldorf has a city library with a central library, 14 district libraries and a car library. A total of about 800,000 media are available. Over 1.4 million visitors borrowed more than 4.7 million media per year.
Düsseldorf has a rich musical tradition, which began before the 19th century. Major musicians such as Johann Hugo von Wilderer, Friedrich August Burgmüller, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and the couple Clara and Robert Schumann had temporarily found their places of work in the city.
In the 20th century, however, Düsseldorf also played a leading role in styles as diverse as jazz, the Neue Deutsche Welle and punk rock.
The most important concert hall in the state capital is the Tonhalle Düsseldorf with more than 200 events a year. The Tonhalle is also the headquarters of the Düsseldorf Symphoniker, which acts as a concert orchestra of the state capital and as an opera orchestra of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein. The concert hall, a former planetarium, was extensively renovated in 2005 and has since had good acoustics.
The Duesseldorf Courts of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries already brought about a lively musical life. It is associated with the names Martin Peudargent, Giacomo Negri, Egidio Hennio, Giovanni Battista Mocchi, Georg Andreas Kraft, Sebastiano Moratelli, Stefano Pallavicini, Valeriano Pellegrini, Giorgio Maria Rapparini, Agostino Steffani and Francesco Maria Veracini. Since 1807, the musician Friedrich August Burgmüller's family has been working in Düsseldorf, producing two famous Romantic composers with Friedrich and Norbert Burgmüller. In 1818 the Municipal Music Association founded itself with Düsseldorf and organized the first of many Lower Rhine Music Festivals, which had international significance in the 19th century, also through the participation of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and Robert Schumann, both music directors in Düsseldorf. The Municipal Musikverein has an unbroken and musical history that is extraordinary from 1818 to the present day and is considered to be the city’s musical ambassador in all major concert halls in Germany and Europe. In Düsseldorf, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy composed the singing of the Vespergesang in 1833, in 1834 to 1836 the oratory of Paul, and in 1850 Robert Schumann composed his famous third symphony ("the Rheinische").
There is also a lively and diverse choir scene in Düsseldorf, including the Düsseldorf Bachverein with a long tradition as well as choir and choir school at St. Margareta in Gerresheim.
With the Maxkirche church in the old town of Düsseldorf, there is a church-musical site, whose history goes back to the 17th century and which was founded in the 19th century. a. Norbert Burgmüller, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and Robert Schumann.
From 1982 to 1987, a series of concerts for new music was organized with new sounds.
One of the most famous jazz musicians with roots in Düsseldorf is Klaus Doldinger, who is also known as a composer of film music (Das Boot, Tatort). For several years he has been patron of the jazz rally in Düsseldorf. The festival "Düsseldorf Jazz-Rally" has been held in Düsseldorf since 1993 - initially as Brussels Jazz Rally - and thus for the 28th time in 2020.
In 1994 jazz was founded in Düsseldorf. V., who presents modern jazz with concerts in the jazz shop with musicians from all over the world. With the Jazz blacksmithing, jazz has once again a fixed venue in Düsseldorf. The jazz smiths’ concerts in the Hofgarten are held every year on four Saturdays.
The popular singer Heino was born and raised in the Oberbilk district of Düsseldorf.
Düsseldorf was a leading center of electronic pop music in the entertainment music sector from the 1970s onwards. Especially power plants with their historic Kling sound studio in the Friedrichstadt region of Düsseldorf were and are internationally known, but also new! and La Düsseldorf. In its title Trans-Europa-Express and the accompanying music video, the Kraftwerk analyzes in an avant-garde way the lifestyle of Düsseldorf businessmen who enjoy a lifestyle with changing stays in European metropolises thanks to transnational railway networks. In the tradition of these 'Düsseldorf schools' of the seventies, the internationally acclaimed band Kreidler still stands today. Susanne Blech, a German band based in the Düsseldorf area, is currently attracting attention in the electropop sector, while the PDR. is a member of the Düsseldorf artist Loco Dice's genre Deep House. A well-known DJ from Düsseldorf is Lukas Langeheine, alias DJ Rafik.
In the early 1980s Düsseldorf was the home of German punk and NDW music alongside West Berlin and Hamburg. The most important bands were and still are The Dead Pants, Broilers, German American Friendship, Propaganda, Rhine Gold, The Krups, Faulty Colors, The Plan, KFC, Male, Lunch Break, Asmodes Bizarr, Tommi Stumpff, Family 5 and Aftermaker. Cryssis is the band of the drummer of the Dead Pants, of the Ritchie. The "Beatlesons" offer trash polka, explicitly without Beatles songs.
Marius Müller-Westernhagen was born and educated in Düsseldorf (Humboldt-Gymnasium). In his title At 18 the chicken Hugo is named from the old town of Düsseldorf. In addition to Heino, the Dead Pants and Power Plant, he is one of the most successful and well-known musicians of Düsseldorf origin.
A number of internationally renowned metal bands are also from Düsseldorf: Warlock (with Doro Pesch who continued solo under Doro in 1989), Stormwind, Callejon, Warrant and Falkenbach.
Düsseldorf's mouth tapes Alt Schuss are one of the most famous in the greater Düsseldorf area. The band Halve Hahn also belongs to this genre. The roots of both groups lie in the Unterbacher Carnival.
With Farid Bang, Blumio, Antilopen Gang, NMZS, Pop Papzt, Toony, Al-Gear and many others Düsseldorf has created an important scene of the German-speaking rap (Gangsta-Rap, Hip-Hop). In the album Asphalt Massaka 2 Farid Bang won his hometown with the title I am Düsseldorf the special tribute. His colleague, Mr. Collah, known for his "pimping rap", is also at home in Düsseldorf. In the electrical rap sector JayJay is a well-known artist based in the Düsseldorf district of Fortunafans, who presents his voice in Düsseldorf's Rheinisch in the title of Kbilel Klopp. Tbo and Glenn A. D.I.U. goes beyond the Gangsta rap scheme by differentiating social problems such as discrimination, violence, hatred, poverty, injustice, unemployment, materialism and stigma. DTC (D-Town Chillaz) is an English language version of the Düsseldorf Rap. Nabil M. mixes German, Arabic and French in his rap. The roots of the German-speaking rap lie not far in Ratingen-West, where the Fresh Family group created Ahmet Gündüz around 1990 and launched him as the first rap song in German. With Selfmade Records, Banger Musik and Alpha Music Empire, three of Germany’s most important HipHop labels are at home in Düsseldorf.
In 1968, the city was discussed in the Schlager and Evergreen Warst you stayed in Düsseldorf, with which the German-Danish singer Dorthe Kollo won a Golden Record.
On May 10, 12 and 14, 2011, the Eurovision Song Contest took place in the ESPRIT arena. It was 56. This is the third edition of this song contest in Germany.
The city of Düsseldorf was as popular as a place of residence and study for artists as it was a location for art collections and museums. Some museums in Düsseldorf are particularly dedicated to the art of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Explanation of the art tradition by the Kurfürstliches Collection
The existing small Kurfürstal collection of paintings in Düsseldorf was extended to become a famous art gallery under the auspices of Prince Johann Wilhelm of the Palatinate and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici. In the early nineteenth century, the collection, including important works by Rubens, was transported to Munich, where it forms the core of the ancient Pinakothek.
From Düsseldorf School to the Malkbox
In the 19th century, the Düsseldorf painting school, which was founded in 1801, had been founded in the German capital. a. Oswald Achenbach emerged, an important influence on painting. The Academy was founded in 1810 by Peter von Cornelius, who initially headed it; From 1826, Wilhelm von Schadow was Director. The academy diversified and in particular produced socially critical genre paintings and important landscapes. Her students came not only from the Rhineland, Westphalia and Old Prussia, but also from the other German countries as well as Poland, Russia, the Scandinavian countries and the United States of America. Finnish art has its own Düsseldorf era.
After the revolution of 1848, artists and scholars gathered at the Kunstverein Malkast in Düsseldorf. In 1846 the association was founded to build a painting gallery at Düsseldorf, which bought works of the Düsseldorf painting school in particular. From the initiative of this association the art palace and finally the museum art palace emerged.
From Rhine Expressionism to the center of modernity
After the First World War, the Young Rhineland group was the most active group of artists in the city. She was among them. a. Otto Dix, Max Ernst and Walter Ophey. The center of the group was the Altstadt-Galerie Junge Kunst - Mrs. Ey, which was run by Mother Ey, still known in Düsseldorf today. Many of the artists of the association were linked to Rheinische Expressionism.
After World War II, Joseph Beuys was formative and Düsseldorf was considered a "world art capital" not only because of his work at the Düsseldorf Academy of Fine Arts in the 1970s and 1980s. Today, some Beuys students such as Katharina Sieverding and Anselm Kiefer influence the development of the international art scene. The photographer Bernd Becher, who took a professorship at the Düsseldorf Academy of Art in 1976, together with his wife Hilla Becher, trained many photographic personalities who are now, from an international point of view, outstanding representatives of German photography. This "Düsseldorf Photography School" includes Boris Becker, Laurenz Berges, Elger Esser, Andreas Gursky, Candida Höfer, Axel Hütte, Simone Nieweg, Thomas Ruff, Jörg Sasse, Thomas Struth and Peter Wunderlich.
art in public space
In addition to traditional monuments and statues, such as the Mariensäule or the Schadow monument, Düsseldorf has many other art objects to offer in public space. Thus the Südpark houses many artistic fountains, sculptures and other art objects, the most famous of which is probably the time of Klaus Rinke. In the city center, the so-called pillars' holy sculptures of everyday citizens who are realistically replicated on the pillars of Christoph Pöggeler are also striking. Some works of art have long been controversial, for example the Heine Monument by Bert Gerresheim. The stations of the Wehrhahn line contribute to art in public space, each with its own artistic design.
See also: List of works of art in public space in Düsseldorf
Buildings and architecture
The main shopping street and one of the most important shopping streets in Germany is the Schadowstraße. However, the Königsallee, in short "the Kö", is well known for its urban development and its exclusive shops. In its center lies the ditch, at the northern end of which the Triton group, a well dating from 1902, is the landmark of the Kö.
In the old town there are many houses that are listed as a historical monument. Other preserved historical centers can be found in the districts of Kaiserswerth and Gerresheim. The village character of the town centers of Angermund, Kalkum, Oberlörick, Heerdt, Hamm, Himmelgeist and Urdenbach has largely been preserved.
Perhaps the oldest building in the city area is the ruin of the Kaiserpfalz in Kaiserswerth. It dates back to a castle built in 1016. This, in turn, is due to a monastery that was built around the year 700. In 1702 it was destroyed by French forces during the Spanish War of Succession.
Also very old is the original castle of Kalkum. The castle was built from a front courtyard first mentioned in the 9th century. It was converted from 1810 to 1819. The origins of the Heltorf Castle in Angermund are expected to date back to the 11th century. A reconstruction took place between 1822 and 1827.
The castle tower at the Burgplatz in the Old Town was originally part of the Düsseldorf Castle, one of the city's landmarks, built in the 13th century and expanded all the way into the 16th century. In 1845, the tower was rebuilt by the Duesseldorf architect Rudolf Wiegmann in the style of the Italian Neorenaissance. The tower is the only remaining part of the Duesseldorf Castle which was destroyed by a fire in 1872.
In the 14th century, the castle of Angermund was built as the northernmost bastion of the Counts of Berg as well as the predecessor of the castle of Eller. Today's Eller Castle, however, was built in 1826 and converted and extended in 1902.
The era of baroque and rococo has left its mark in Düsseldorf in the gardening and in the form of castles. At the beginning of the Baroque era, Garath Castle was built. It was built in the 16th century, and was converted and supplemented until the 18th century. North of the courtyard, between 1752 and 1763, Jägerhof Castle was built. It was built by the architect Johann Joseph Couven. Today it houses the Goethe Museum. The Hofgärtnerhaus, which is located in the courtyard garden and includes the Theatermuseum, also has a similar architecture. The architect of the Hofgärtnerhaus was Nicolas de Pigage.
The castle of Benrath also dates back to Pigage. It was built between 1755 and 1773 on behalf of Kurfürst Karl Theodor of the Palatinate. The listed ensemble of Lustschloss, Jagdpark, Weihern and the canal system is considered to be the most important architectural ensemble of Düsseldorf and was proposed by the city in 2012 for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List, but not further considered by the jury.
The Mickeln Castle, built in 1843 in the spirit of heaven, was built in the style of Renaissance villas.
The Unterbach House is not part of the city area, although it is the source of Unterbach, since the territorial reform in 1975 it has been part of the city of Düsseldorf. Unlike the Unterbach district, the house is located east of the junction of Erkrather Strasse (roundabout 7) to the Gerresheimer Landstraße, on the north-east side of the latter. Since the current border of the city is along these two roads, the house Unterbach is still located in the area of the city of Erkrath. The Unterfeldhaus, which belonged to Unterbach before the territorial reform in 1975, had only been extensively redesigned and extended a few years earlier, remained with the town of Erkrath and became one of its districts, of which the Unterbach House has belonged ever since.
Old town and Carlstadt
St. Lambertus is the oldest church in the Old Town of Düsseldorf. It was built in Gothic style between 1288 and 1394, the church consecration was on July 13, 1394. Since 1974 St. Lambertus is papal basilica minor. The Kreuzherrenkirche in the Ursulinengasse, built between 1445 and 1455, is significantly younger.
The church of St. Andrew in Andreasstrasse is a baroque building, which was built in the course of the counter-reformation between 1622 and 1629 as a courtyard and Jesuit church. The first church of the Lutheran community in Düsseldorf was the Berger Church on Berger Strasse, built between 1683 and 1687. At the same time the Reformed Church built its first church in Düsseldorf, the Neanderkirche in Bolkerstraße 36. Catholic is St. Maximilian, mostly short called "Maxkirche", in the Schulstraße, corner of Citadellstraße, built between 1735 and 1743.
the rest of the city
The oldest churches in the city are not in the old town, but in the old parts of Bilk and Kaiserswerth: The oldest church in Düsseldorf is the parish church Alt St. built in the 12th century. Martin in Bilk, also called the Old Bilker Church. It was built in the Romanesque style according to its time. Old St. Martin was also the parish church of the village of Düsseldorf before the construction of St. Lambertus. St. Suitbertus is the second oldest church in Kaiserswerth, built between the 11th and 13th centuries, since 1967 papal basilica minor. St. Suitbertus is a Romanesque church with two Gothic extensions, the apse and the side entrance. St. Nikolaus in heavenly spirit, also built 11th to 13th century. The basilica of St. Margareta in Gerresheim has been the third papal basilica of minor in Düsseldorf since 1982. It was built in 1220 to 1240 as a monastery of the Gerresheim Abbey. The pencil building dates from the same period. Both churches are also examples of Romanesque architecture.
The largest Protestant church in the city area is the Lutheran evangelical St. John's Church in the city center. It was built in the neo-Gothic style between 1875 and 1881.
The Catholic Church of St. Anthony in Oberkassel, with its neo-Romanesque style, is particularly interesting on the left, built between 1909 and 1911. The Evangelical Oberkassel Resurrection Church from 1913 to 1914 is also interesting in architectural history in the Rheinischer Backstein architecture with Art Nouveau elements.
St. Peter (kath) is centrally located on the church square in Friedrichstadt. This church has neo-gothic and neo-Romanesque elements. It was built between 1887 and 1898.
Other interesting churches can be found in many districts such as St. Paul (kath) in Düsseltal, St. Maria Rosenkranz (kath.) in 1908 in Wersten and the St. Joseph Church in Oberrath, all built in neoroman style. St. Paulus and St. Josef originate from the architect Josef Kleesattel of Düsseldorf, St. Blasius in Hamm, St. Elisabeth and St. Vinzenz in the city center, Holy Spirit in Pempelfort, the heart of Jesus in Derendorf and St. Ursula in Grafenberg. The architects Caspar Clemens Pickel (e.g. B. St. Adolfus and St. Apollinaris), Paul and Wilhelm Sültenfuß. St. Agnes in Angermund, St. Hubertus in Itter, St. Lambertus in Kalkum and St. Cäcilia in Hubbelrath date from earlier times.
Two churches are worth mentioning as architectural features dating back to the post-World War II period: the St. Sakrament Bunkers' Church in Heerdt, built in an air protection bunker, and the Rochuskirche in Pempelfort. Until its destruction in World War II, the Rochuskirche was a very large and magnificent neo-Romanesque church built in 1897 by Josef Kleesattel. After devastating bombardments, it was a ruin. In 1950 it was decided to save the tower only, but to replace the church ship with a new building. This is a dome roof and was designed by Paul Schneider-Esleben. Other outstanding examples of modern church architecture are the Catholic churches of St. Bruno, St. Francis Xaverius, St. Matthew, the Old Church Chapel of St. Hildegardis and the catharine church in Gerresheim built in the Parabolic ground plan dating back to the 1960s and the Protestant Matthäikirche from the 1960s the interwar period of the Weimar Republic.
Other historical buildings (before 1945)
Apart from castles and churches, the oldest buildings in Düsseldorf are located in the old town:
The oldest profane building in the city is the Löwenhaus in the delivery street in the old town. It dates back to the year of the 1288 City Uprising. The city hall in Düsseldorf dates back to the 16th century. The oldest part was built between 1570 and 1573 by Heinrich Tussmann. In later centuries, more buildings were added. In front of the town hall there is the market square with the Jan Wellem riding statue, which was cast by Gabriel de Grupello in 1712.
The Ratinger Gate was built by Adolph von Vagedes between 1811 and 1815 on the border of the old town. South of the old town, between Carlstadt, Friedrichstadt and Unterbilk, is the Permanent House. Built between 1876 and 1880 by Julius Raschdorff, it served as the seat of the Prussian Provincial Parliament, and from 1949 to 1988 it housed the state parliament of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia. Today there is the art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia K21.
The expansion and economic rise of the city until the outbreak of World War I also led to the establishment of department stores, so that with Kaufhof am Kö, formerly Leonhard Tietz AG, built between 1906 and 1908 by Joseph Maria Olbrich and the Carsch-Haus, built by Otto Engler from 1914 to 1916 two department stores still used today.
The former administrative building of Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG on the Mannesmann bank was built in 1912 by the architect Peter Behrens.
Right next to the banks of the Rhine, the architect Hermann built the Landeshaus and the Villa Horion, named after the later provincial governor, from the end of 1909 to 1911 on behalf of the Rhineland Provincial Association.
One of the first high-rise buildings in Germany is the Wilhelm-Marx House, located on today's Heinrich-Heine-Allee, which was built between 1922 and 1924 by Wilhelm Kreis. The Ehrenhof complex also dates from the district, including the clay hall originally conceived as a planetarium and the nearby Rhine terrace. The Ehrenhof is now home to several museums and exhibition institutes. a. the NRW Forum and the Museum Art Palace. The complex was built as part of the Grand Exhibition for Health Care, Social Welfare and Physical Practice, in short "GeSoLei" in 1926. The sculpture "Aurora" above the north portal was created by Arno Breker.
The main railway station was built between 1932 and 1936 by the architects Kruger and Eduard Behne after the city's central railway station had been moved from Graf-Adolf Square to a place on the outskirts of the inner city districts. The reconstruction and modernization took place in the 1980s. Further modernization is planned for 2021.
Modern and post-modern buildings
Düsseldorf was partly rebuilt after the Second World War, but in many places it opted for modern buildings.
As planning director, Friedrich Tamms played a decisive role in the redesign of the city in the 1950s to 1960s. a. responsible for the new development of the Berliner Allee. The building of the Stadtsparkasse Düsseldorf stands out for its architectural style, while the ensemble from the Thyssen-Hochhaus ("Three-disk house"), built between 1957 and 1960 by the architects Helmut Hentrich and Hubert Petschnigg, the Düsseldorf Schauspielhaus, built between 1965 and 1970 by the architect Bernhard Pfau, and the centipede torn down in April 2013. The reorganization of the inner city area was highly controversial at the time, and the personnel policy of the December Tamm had also led to the dispute between architects in Duesseldorf. Today, the area is overplanned again, in its center is now the Kö-Arch by Daniel Libeskind.
The Mannesmann high-rise building in Carlstadt, built between 1956 and 1958 by Paul Schneider-Esleben, who was also responsible for the Haniel garage, Germany's first high-rise garage after the war, was built in 1949-1950, as well as the now decommissioned ARAG Terrace house in Mörsenbroich.
In addition to the historic buildings, the cable-stayed bridges and the Mannesmann tower, other buildings form the Rhine front, whose overall image is highly recognizable. The Rheinturm (built between 1979 and 1982) by architect Harald Deilmann, with 240.5 m of the highest landmark in the city, and the Landtag building of North Rhine-Westphalia (built between 1980 and 1988) are particularly significant. The time display of the Rheinturm is considered the world’s largest digital clock. Since the 1990s, the Rheinpark Bilk has been connected to the Rheinturm. Behind the Rheinpark, a town-planning and architectural collage of new buildings and reconstructed old buildings, named the Media Harbor in the front part of the old Rhine harbor on the Lausward, was built after its architect Frank Gehry (built in 1996). 996 to 1999), and the Colorium, a 17-story office building (completed in 2001), are particularly impressive. The resulting whole group, characterized by individual jumps, variety of shapes and materials as well as functional and aesthetic contrasts, is not only a sought-after office and hotel location in the state capital, but also acts as a new tourist destination.
The new building of the broadcasting house and the state studio of the Westdeutscher Rundfunk on the Stromstraße is another distinctive post-modern building adjacent to the Rheinpark. The motorway then continues through the tunnel Gladbacher Strasse, above which the internationally acclaimed city gate stands. a. is the seat of the North Rhine-Westphalia State Chancellery.
Further towards the city center, the oval tower architecture of the 89 m high CAP 15, which was planned by architects J.J. in 2005, stands out at Graf-Adolf-Platz. K. was built. The DRV tower is located near the Graf Adolf Square, on Friedrichstraße. It is 120m high and has a typical 1970s architecture (completion: 1978). The architect was Harald Deilmann. The façade was redesigned in 2006/2007. The building of WestLB on Kirchplatz, in the corner of Fürstenwall/Friedrichstraße, was completely renovated. The original building from the late 1960s, built for the Bausparkasse Rheinprovinz, overlooked the church of St. Peter, but its successor has a lower height. The other nearby WestLB building is a tower complex, the construction of which is typical for the 1970s.
North of the Oberkasseler Bridge, behind the neo-classical Oberlandesgericht, the Victoria Tower appears clearly as the highest building in the postmodern building complex of the insurance company on the Fisherstrasse.
In the north of the city, the ARAG insurance set its mark. The so-called Mörsenbroicher egg was and is surrounded by buildings of this society. The old graduate house of Paul Schneider-Esleben had to give way to the 125 m high ARAG tower built between 1998 and 2000 by the architect Sir Norman Foster, which is the highest administrative building in the city area.
The Rhine stadium, built between 1968 and 1975, also had to set course. The Mercury game arena is now in its place. It was built between 2002 and 2004 according to plans of architects J.S.K. built. Also in the north of the city, in Rath, is the ISS Dome. It was built between 2005 and 2006 by architects Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky (RKW).
In the south of Düsseldorf, the Kuppelgreenhouses in the botanical garden of Düsseldorf are worth mentioning. The Heinrich-Heine-Universität itself was built in a typical 1960s and 1970s building with several high buildings for the institutes in concrete with large glass windows, auditorium buildings with concrete concrete and partly red interfacing and other partly red-linked buildings partly built with concrete. A bit unusual is the scattered location of the buildings along a winding main axis of the site.
Düsseldorf bridge family
The Düsseldorf bridge family was originally a collective term for the three central cable-stairways Theodor-Heuss-Brücke, Oberkasseler Brücke and Rheinkniebrücke, which had significantly influenced the development of this type of bridge worldwide for many years.
The Theodor-Heuss bridge, formerly known as the North Bridge, between Golzheim and Niederkassel, is considered to be the first cable-stayed bridge in Germany. It was designed in 1952 on behalf of the Düsseldorf town planning office under the direction of architect Friedrich Tamms by a group of architects and structural engineer Fritz Leonhardt. The slim, free-carrying pylon stems and the harp-shaped parallel arrangement of the ropes were initiated by Tamms. Shortly after its completion in 1957, Tamms also commissioned the planning of the Oberkasseler Bridge and the Rhine Niebrücke, where Fritz Leonhardt led the Rheinkniebrücke, Hans Grassl led the Oberkasseler Bridge.
The Oberkasseler bridge between the city center and Oberkassel was the oldest and for a long time the only Düsseldorf road bridge. From 1898 it replaced the Ponton Bridge of 1839, which until then was the only link to the left bank of the Rhine, and was expanded in 1924. After the destruction in 1945, a temporary bridge was erected again in 1948. For traffic reasons, it was not until 1973 that the cable-stayed bridge designed by Hans Grassl could be built next to it. In 1976, the revisited permanent transfer of the new bridge to the historic site took place. It connects the old town to Oberkassel and carries the city railway lines from the Heinrich-Heine-Allee to Linksrheinische.
The Rheinkniebrücke, further south, connects the Friedrichstadt with Oberkassel. For traffic reasons it had to be built before the new construction of the Oberkasseler Bridge. It was built between 1965 and 1969 according to Leonhardt's plans and is an inclined bridge like the Theodor-Heuss bridge and the Oberkasseler bridge built after it.
These three cable-stayed bridges feature the same elements - a flat steel bridge deck, slim vertical pylons and a few harp-shaped cable-stays. Due to their location within a short distance of each other, they could also be presented together in models and drawings even before they were completed. In 2007, the Düsseldorf bridge family was nominated for the award as the Historical symbol of engineering architecture in Germany.
Further south, three bridges are connecting Düsseldorf with the neighboring city of Neuss. The Hammer Railway Bridge, a half-timbered bridge suspended on a steel arch, first arrives from north to south, and its predecessor dates back to 1870. The remains of this old bridge can still be seen in the form of towers on the banks. The current bridge was built in 1987 right next to the historical track as part of the construction of the East-West S-Bahn S 8. Unlike its predecessor, it has four railways. There is no walking or cycling path, nor is there a road for cars.
The Josef Cardinal-Frings Bridge, formerly the South Bridge, is within sight, a new building from 1950 to 1951, after the old bridge of 1929 was destroyed in the last war year of 1945. It is the first hollow-box-bar bridge built in welding technology. Via the Josef-Cardinal-Frings-Bridge you will find the main road 1 and a tram line.
The most southern Rhine bridge in Düsseldorf is the Fleher Brücke, an cable-stayed bridge with the highest bridge pylon in Germany and a multitude of fan-shaped ropes. It was built between 1976 and 1979. The motorway 46 runs along it.
In the north of the city there is the airport bridge, an cable-stayed bridge with pronounced triangles, which leads from Düsseldorf-Stockum to Meerbusch, passing the route of the federal highway 44. It is the youngest Rhine bridge in Düsseldorf, built between 1998 and 2002.
Historical gas lanterns
Düsseldorf is one of the last cities in the world to have a large and intact network of gas lanterns (14,000 - with a decreasing trend, as of 2018). Since 1848, the lanterns with their golden yellow light have shaped the atmosphere of the city. The gas lighting is connected in many ways to the history of the city. In the 19th century, the Mannesmann brothers wrote an important piece of industrial history with the patent for seamless steel tubes in the Rhineland. The technique of the hanging filament was also developed by Mannesmann. Clara Schumann already wrote about the gas lamps in Düsseldorf.
The gas lanterns are important witnesses to the historical development of the city and even the youngest ones are more than half a century old. They still illuminate large parts of the residential areas. Known gas lantern types include the Alt-Düsseldorf lamps, the approach and switch lights used since the 1920s as well as series lamps.
The famous and listed Duesseldorf Hofgarten was illuminated by gas lamps until the storm Ela in 2014. The Frankfurt model, which was set up there in the 1950s, is now considered probably unique throughout Europe. Countless trees were destroyed by the storm and many gas lanterns were destroyed, but they survived the storm without any risk from gas leaking. Until now, the gas lamps in the Hofgarten have not been replaced, there is still a temporary electric lighting on wooden pillars.
The Düsseldorf City Council intends to exchange almost all historical gas lanterns for LED lights. A petition from the citizens of Düsseldorf gathered more than 10,000 votes to receive it and was the most successful petition in city history to date. A citizens' initiative calls for gas lighting to be recognized as a "world cultural heritage" and industrial landmark.
In the opinion of the citizens' initiative, both cultural and financial reasons justify the large-scale maintenance of the gas-lamp network. The Confederation of Taxpayers, which made its point in a press statement, is one of the supporters of the initiative. Even the BUND for the Environment and Nature Conservation does not consider the replacement of gas lamps an effective means of reducing CO2 emissions.
By a decision of 10 December 2015, the Council of the City of Düsseldorf recognized the gas lanterns as a cultural property for the first time. For the Hofgarten, the administration has been asked to prepare an implementation and financing decision to restore the gas lighting. At least 4000 gas lanterns will be preserved in the rest of the city. The designation of conservation areas has been delegated to the district representations.
In August 2016, Stadtwerke Düsseldorf declared that they were in a position to guarantee the permanent operation of the gas lamps in a legally and technically sound manner.
parks and green areas
Düsseldorf, which often receives the name of the garden city, now has 1238 hectares of public green spaces, including 641 hectares of parks spread across the city. The Rhine forms a green bond with its large, largely undeveloped riverbanks, which links various parks in the north-south direction. On the eastern outskirts of the city, there are 2,180 hectares of urban forest.
The reputation as a garden town dates back to the second half of the 18th century. In 1769, according to the plans of Nicolas de Pigage, the governor of the Kurfürst Karl-Theodor had the "Old Hofgarten" built as the first Volksgarten in Germany as part of job creation measures. The facility became a landmark for similar parks in other cities. After the grinding of the fortresses in 1801, the park was redesigned by Maximilian Friedrich Weyhe and developed in the form of an open garden landscape. This "Neue Hofgarten" with its garden and entertainment facilities was a social meeting place and a special feature of Düsseldorf. The Hofgarten remained the only green area in the built-up area until 1875.
The gardens of the big city
The strong urban expansion generated by industrialization provided the basis for the construction of new parks. In 1875 the Florapark and in 1876 the Zoological Gardens were created in a private initiative, both with pond facilities fed by the Düsseldorf. Heinrich Hillebrecht, who was a gardener of Düsseldorf from 1879 to 1910, had a great influence on the design of the green areas. Since the mid-1880s, the city of Düsseldorf has been pursuing the goal of acquiring land for the construction of parks and recreational areas. In 1892 the Oberbilker Volksgarten, now part of the Südpark, was built. In 1898 the Ostpark was followed. In 1903, the city took over the Florapark and in 1905 the zoological garden.
In 1904, the large horticultural exhibition took place in Düsseldorf, where the focus was on the reform of the horticulture sector towards an architectural design. Peter Behrens and Walter von Engelhardt from the Düsseldorf School of Arts and Crafts supported these reforms. After her ideas, Reinhold Hoemann planned the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Park on the Rhine. In the framework of the GeSoLei 1926, parts of the banks of the Rhine were repaired and gardened. From the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Park and the new areas, the present Rheinpark Golzheim was connected to the Hofgarten via the complex of the Museum Kunstpalast. Within the scope of the Reichsexhibition "Schaffende Volk" was created between the banks of the Rhine and the Kaiserswerther Street of the Nordpark. The Volksgarten and the Südpark were part of the site of the Bundesgartenschau in 1987. To the south is the Botanical Garden.
The parks of several castles and mansions, which are now part of the urban area, are open to the public. The most famous is the park of Castle Benrath in the south of the city. In the southern districts of Elbroich Park and the parks of the castles of Eller, Mickeln and Garath, you will also find these. The park of Kalkum Castle and Lantz Park are located in the north of the city. Between the Carlstadt and the Friedrichstadt you will find the Permanent Capital Park with the Spee’schen Graben, Kaiserteich and Schwanenspiegel. In Pempelfort, the grounds of the Malkast Artists' Association with the Jacobi Garden are connected to the courtyard.
List of Düsseldorf parks
Nine of the parks in Düsseldorf were taken into the street of garden art between the Rhine and the Meuse in 2004 because of their quality and importance. They are highlighted in the following list by *.
- Alter Bilker cemetery
- University Botanical Garden
- Golzheimer cemetery*
- court garden*
- IHZ Park (commercial center)
- Lantz’s Park
- Maurice-Ravel park
- northern cemetery
- North park* with Japanese garden
- Park Elbroich/Heyepark
- Park at the Permanent House* with the imperial pond and swan mirror
- Rheinpark Bilk
- Rheinpark Golzheim
- Benrath Castle Park*
- Schlosspark Eller
- Schlosspark Garath
- Park Heltorf*
- Kalkum Castle
- Schlosspark Mickeln
- Spee’s Graben*
- City-Nature Park Flingern
- municipal plant
- Starwarpark (former Bilker cemetery, unofficially also Cola Park)
- southern cemetery
- South park with Volksgarten*
- Wildpark in the Grafenberger forest
Düsseldorf has 43 natural monuments and 12 nature reserves in the city area, with a total area of 1435 hectares.
In the past, the meandering of the Rhine between the old river and today's course of the river covered a large swamp and moorland area in the south-east of the city, which encompassed large parts of today's districts 8, 9 and 10, as well as the neighboring town of Hilden, as well as some of its forests. Many of today's nature reserves were derived from the various forms of this marsh. The sanding part of the area mentioned in the confluences has now been removed and left the Unterbacher See (formerly Bendensee), Elbsee, Menzelsee and Dreiecksweiher in Unterbach. Wetlands remained the Urdenbacher Kampe, the Eller Forst and the Himmelgeister Rheinbogen, which, like parts of the Elbe Lake and the Triangular Pond, were put under conservation. The concentration of the water allowed large areas of the marshland to be dried and cultivated, among other things, by peat quarries. Previously, the historic Mauspweg trail was a high-altitude route that crossed the first slopes of the Bergisch Land at the crossing to the Lower Rhine plain.
The Urdenbacher Kampe is the largest nature reserve in Düsseldorf, with an area of 316 ha. It is characterized by the frequent scattered fruit in the Auwald forest in the Lower Rhine region and the FFH area. In the east of the city, passing the district of Mettmann, there is the Rotthäuser Bachtal, which is also an FFH area, in which ponds and hedges as well as forests shape the hilly landscape. The third FFH area is the overanger mark in the north-east of Düsseldorf, which consists mainly of alder and hainbeech forests.
The other nature reserves within the city boundaries of Düsseldorf are:
- Rahmer Benden in Angermund
- the Hubbelrather Bachtal
- the Pillebachtal valley in Gerresheim
- the Tongruben in Gerresheim and Grafenberg respectively
- the Benrather Schlosspark
recreational areas and amusement parks
Lake Unterbacher is the most popular recreational area in the city. It is located at the city border with Erkrath and Hilden and borders with Eller Forst. It offers numerous leisure and sports activities, from sailing and pedalo to mini-golf and swimming. There are also two campsites. The area around the lake is protected by nature. In addition, the Düsseldorf city forest is part of the green lungs for recreation.
The city has set up three theme parks for children and families in the 1970s and 1980s, which have been modernized since then. These include the Ulenbergstraße amusement park in Bilk, the Heerdt amusement park in Heerdt in the left Rheinische Heerdt and the Niederheid amusement park, which also includes a children's farm.
Intercultural references, international culture
There are a total of 110,000 foreigners living in Düsseldorf and some 5,000 foreign companies have settled in the city. Among other things, the company's operations result in an exceptionally high proportion of Japanese residents, as well as many Dutch, American, British, French, Chinese, and Korean people. There are also large Turkish, Greek, Moroccan, Serbian, Italian and Polish municipalities, as in other similar towns. There are numerous cultural and religious institutions of different nationalities and faiths in the city.
40 of the 71 consular offices and branches located in North Rhine-Westphalia were located in Düsseldorf at the beginning of 2013. There are also 33 foreign chambers of commerce and foreign trade organizations. The inauguration of a fourth Chinese Consulate General in Germany in Düsseldorf in 2014, announced during the state visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to North Rhine-Westphalia, took place on 19 December 2015 in the presence of Prime Minister Hannelore Kraft and Foreign Minister Wang Yi.
In 2015 the English language was added to German as the administrative language. The accessibility and attractiveness of the city for e.g. B. Expatriates, highly skilled immigrants and international scientists will therefore be increased.
Düsseldorf has an English-speaking international school in the north of the city with 950 students from 44 nations, and the neighboring Neuss has another international school. In the district of Düsseltal there is a French school with about 430 students, a Japanese international school with about 650 students on the left, and a Greek Lyzeum with about 820 students. The Yitzhak Rabin School is one of the few Jewish primary schools in Germany.
As cultural organizations, a. to mention the Institut français, which has been operating in Düsseldorf since 1950, and the Institute Polski. The Japanese club is one of the largest clubs in the city with 5000 members. A Confucius Institute was established at the Heinrich Heine University. The contract between the Heinrich-Heine-Universität and the Confucius-Institut was not renewed and expired in April 2020.
The annual Japanese event, as well as the French festival in July, are among the cultural highlights of urban life. In addition, the Jewish Cultural Days in the Rhineland are held every four years with different disciplines.
In the district of Gerresheim there are some roads that are very southern in Italian, the Greek community is also strong in Düsseldorf. In recent years, a Moroccan-Tunisian neighborhood has formed around the Ellerstraße in Oberbilk. In Düsseldorf there are Christian communities. a. from South Korea, Poland and Vietnam, the Russian Orthodox Church has a Patriarchate in Düsseldorf. The Coptic Orthodox Church is represented by a municipality and a church in the city. In the city center, there is also the so-called "Maghreb" district. It covers the area of the central (south-eastern) districts of the city center, Friedrichstadt, Flingern-Süd and (northern) Oberbilk, and is characterized by a population structure in North Africa.
Duesseldorf's Old Town is called the "longest bar in the world" because of its many pubs. The wording is based on Carl Schweik, a professor of advertising in the 1960s. In addition to the Altbierkneipe Uteren there are the houses "Brauerei im Fuchschen", "Brauerei Schumacher", "Brauerei zum Key" and many more. There are hundreds of bars, restaurants, discos and pubs in a surprisingly narrow area. The area comprises the historical part of the old town, bordered to the north by Ratinger Straße, to the west by the Rhine promenade, to the east by Heinrich-Heine-Allee and to the south by Carlsplatz. In November 2009, the closed hour in the old town was lifted.
The Old Town is rivaled by the modern media harbor, with its architecturally important Gehry buildings and interesting clubs and discos, where celebrities often travel.
The left side of the Rhine with the districts of Oberkassel and Niederkassel is also popular in gastronomic terms. In recent decades, Bilk has been a tentative student culture. In the districts of Derendorf, Flingern and Pempelfort scene audiences tend to be on the move. In Pempelfort in particular, a lively pub and gastronomy scene has developed in the vicinity of the Tußmannstrasse and the former site of the freight station Derendorf. In the above mentioned amusement centers and in the numerous pubs of the neighborhoods, the main attractions are the old beer. Almost all the pubs also offer other types of beer. In addition to the old beer, the mustard ("Mostert") of the brands Löwensenf and ABB mustard and the herbal liqueur Killepitsch are considered as other specialties of local gastronomy.
The Königsallee (Kö). "To see and to be seen" is the motto here. The boulevard's numerous street cafes are also a great place to stay. The Rhine waterfront promenade, which links the media harbor with the old town, also offers a wealth of cafés and restaurants with outdoor astronomy.
One of the local specialties is the mustard roast in Düsseldorf.
The most important elements of the Duesseldorf customs are the Carnival with the Rose Monday train as a highlight, the contactors’ festivals in the neighborhoods and in July the large Düsseldorf contest with the largest church on the Rhine. The St. Sebastianus-Schützenverein has been in existence since 1435 at the latest, but probably dates back to the 14th century. An old tradition is also cycling. For "Eene Penning" the Düsseldorf cycling clubs - mostly school boys - presented their art. Less important in terms of tourism and business, but more importantly for the children of Düsseldorf, the market changes in the old town and in the neighborhoods are all the more important. In honor of Saint Martin von Tours, in the first half of November they draw with self-made lanterns singing behind one of the Hl. He made the riders. After the removals, they "gripe" sweets in shops and at the front doors in exchange for a stew. In addition to the Carnival and Guild clubs, the home association of the Düsseldorf based Jonges cultivates tradition and tradition.
About 112,000 people in Düsseldorf practice sport in 369 clubs, the umbrella organization of which is the Düsseldorf City Sports Association. 36 clubs are represented in their respective sports at least in the regional league and represent the performance sport. The best known professional clubs in Düsseldorf are the Düsseldorf EG in the Fortuna Düsseldorf soccer club and the Düsseldorf EG in the ice hockey. Against the backdrop of the ultimately unsuccessful Olympic bid in Düsseldorf/Rhein-Ruhr for 2012, the city of Düsseldorf has invested heavily in the construction of new sports facilities for both professional and grassroots sport. A sports agency was attached to the city marketing, which under the slogan "Sportstadt Düsseldorf" attracts and markets national and international sporting events in the city. From July 1, 2009, the LTU Arena was named ESPRIT Arena, and since August 3, 2018 it has been named Mercury Game Arena.
Fortuna Düsseldorf is the city’s most famous sports club. The biggest sporting successes are the winnings of the German soccer championship in 1933, the DFB cup winnings in 1979 and 1980 and the final entry in the European cup tournament of the 1979 cup winners.
The football division of TuRU Düsseldorf, which played in the Upper League of North Rhine from the 2004/2005 season to the 2007/08 season, also played in the Upper League of North Rhine, succeeded in 2012/13 in the re-emergence of this league, where SC Düsseldorf-West also plays BV 04 Düsseldorf, which has regularly hosted an international junior soccer tournament (U19 Champions Trophy) since 1963 as Easter, as well as VfL Benrath, who became German amateur champion in 1957 and the two German national players Karl Hohmann and Josef Rasselnberg in the 1930 .
The Düsseldorf EG is just as well known as Fortuna's soccer team. Since 1967, DEG has been one of the most successful clubs in Germany. In 2006, the German cup victory and the victory were won for the first time. Once again, the victory in the 08/09 season was won.
In the ice stadium on Brehmstraße, the DEG’s venue from 1935 to 2006, several European ice hockey competitions and world championships took place. Since September 2006, the DEG games have been held at the ISS-Dome.
Düsseldorf Panther, the oldest American football club in Düsseldorf, has won the German Football League six times since its founding in 1978, making it the oldest German football team to have been German record champions for many years until 2008.
The Düsseldorf Bulldozer, founded in 1979, also look back on a long tradition and played in the upper classes in the early years of the German leagues.
From 1994 until the end of 2007, the team of Rhein Fire was one of Düsseldorf's sporting highlights. Rhein Fire hosted the World Bowls in 2006, as in 1999, 2002, 2004 and 2005, and was able to win them in 1998 and 2000 after five finals.
The table tennis club Borussia Düsseldorf was the last German champion in 2016 and won 24 German championships in addition to 28 national championships. Borussia won the European Cup of the national champions six times and the ETTU Cup twice and won the Champions League in table tennis in 2000, 2009, 2010 and 2011. In addition, there is a third place in the first world championship for club teams.
The local competitor TuSa 06 Düsseldorf was founded in 1949 and was five times German team champions of the gentlemen between 1962 and 1967, and three times in succession German cup champions from 1964 to 1966. He was one of the founding members of the Bundesliga table tennis, where he remained until 1971.
With Eberhard Schöler, Jörg Roßkopf, Dimitrij Ovtcharov and Timo Boll play(t)en four of the most successful German table tennis players for years in Düsseldorf.
In addition, every year the "Kids Open", the largest table tennis youth tournament in Europe, takes place in Düsseldorf.
The most successful tennis club in the city is the masters of the Rochusclub in the first Bundesliga, while the TC Benrath in the first Bundesliga is the most successful for the ladies. The World Team Cup was held every year between 1978 and 2012 at the site of the Düsseldorf Rochusclub in May. After the World Team Cup there was an ATP 250 tennis tournament in 2013 and 2014.
The TV Unterbach 1905 was five times between 1978 and 1984 in the Olympic discipline trampoline tournaments of German team champions. In addition, many entries and titles in the individual championships at German, European and world level were held. In addition, for decades the club played a large part in the German national team and the management of the German Bundesliga trampoline. The club has been pioneering the world with the organization of the Unterbach Cup as the first and highest ever European-wide competition for young people, most recently with worldwide participation. In addition, the 1925 Turnerbund Hassels is one of the few sports clubs offering trampoline tournaments in Düsseldorf.
The couple Anneliese and Siegfried Krehn had for decades one of the first dance schools in Düsseldorf. In the 1950's and 1960's, they won countless leading positions in world, European, and German championships, first as amateurs for the Boston Club Düsseldorf, later as professionals. Among other things, they won the German championships seven times in a row in the standard dances and three times in a row in the Latin American dances. They also secured the 1966 World Championships in both disciplines. As a result of these successes, she and her dance school were the focus of the first dance class on German television. The couple Ernst and Helga Fern also gave classes on German television at the dance school in 1964-65, which still exists today.
The best known basketball team in Düsseldorf are the Gloria Giants Düsseldorf, who play in the second Bundesliga ProA. In the 1980s, the DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf team was dominant in the German women's basketball (nine German champions in succession from 1980 to 1988, in 1975 and in 1990 and 1991) and also successfully represented in European competitions two finals in 1983 and 1986). In addition, DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf has become the German Cup winner seven times more.
Handball and other sports
TuRU Düsseldorf, HSV Düsseldorf and HSG Düsseldorf played in the 1st and 2nd place from 1983 to 2012. Bundesliga handball. After the merger of the Neusser HV and ART Düsseldorf there is again a team that has been in the 2nd season 2017/2018 with the HSG Neuss/Düsseldorf. handball league. The team is playing there under the name HC Rhein Vikings.
Other sports in which Düsseldorf has teams in the top leagues are hockey (1st and 2nd Bundesliga), lacrosse (1st Bundesliga), baseball, dance sport, canoeing and faustball (2nd Bundesliga).
International sports events in Düsseldorf
The sport in Düsseldorf has experienced and experienced various sporting events year after year with a nationwide and worldwide attention. Here are the above mentioned World Cup in Tennis at the Rochusclub, the METRO Group Marathon, the World Ski Championships on the banks of the Rhine, the youth football tournament of the BV 04, the cycle race around the Kö and the Kö Run.
In international football, Düsseldorf and its Rheinstadion hosted several matches of the 1974 World Cup and the opening and several group matches of the 1988 European Football Championship. The ice stadium on Brehmstraße was the location of the world championships in 1955, 1975 and 1983. In 1977, the WorldCup was held in the Rhine stadium, a precursor to the current world athletics championships.
In athletics, the city was the scene of the 1977 cross-country world championships and has hosted the Düsseldorf indoor meeting since 2006.
Between 2000 and 2003, Düsseldorf applied nationally to host the 2012 Olympic Games. In the national preliminary ruling, Düsseldorf came third behind Leipzig and Hamburg.
On July 1, 2017 the Tour de France started with a single-time drive in Düsseldorf. According to official figures, around 500,000 spectators were watching the Grand Depart despite the bad weather. The following day the second stage started in Duesseldorf and ended in Liège. A special feature of the stage was that it led first to the east through Mettmann and then again back to Düsseldorf before the Tour-Tross finally left the city towards Mönchengladbach. On this stage alone, some 800,000 spectators are said to have followed the race in the Düsseldorf area.
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Economy and infrastructure
In the Future Atlas in 2016, the district-free city of Düsseldorf occupied 21 of 402 districts and urban districts in Germany and is thus one of the places with "very high prospects for the future". In the 2019 ranking, it improved to 12th out of 401st.
Düsseldorf is an economically strong, diversified and globally closely integrated city in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, in which it holds a functional primacy (→ Global City). Among the metropolitan functions, the sector dominates all districts and circular cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. In this sector, Düsseldorf ranks third in Germany after Munich and Berlin, and third in Frankfurt/Main. Düsseldorf is also a gateway, in terms of its long-distance infrastructure and worldwide contacts, and has an outstanding role in North Rhine-Westphalia. On the one hand, the central location in Germany’s most populous metropolitan area is decisive. On the other hand, Düsseldorf airport, the third largest airport in Germany, and the Düsseldorf trade fair, with 25 international trade fairs, are important factors for the economic importance of the city, especially in terms of its international interdependence. The strong position of the Düsseldorf labor market is manifested by the largest surplus of one-stop workers among the districts and municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia (with a balance of +151,387 employees subject to social security contributions). The favorable location climate for economic innovation and business start-up is evident from the relatively high number of new enterprises. In 2009, Düsseldorf was the leading city in Germany in the field of business start-ups, characterized by founding especially in the field of research-intensive industries. In 2011, the city was the German capital with the most foreign direct investment. The number of jobs created by foreign investment was three times higher in 2011 than in 2010 and highest within Germany. This makes Düsseldorf the most popular location for foreign investments in Germany. According to an investigation conducted by the consultancy Ernst & Young, Düsseldorf was the largest region in Europe with the highest number of direct investments from the People's Republic of China in 2013, ahead of London and Paris. In 2014, the Düsseldorf region recorded the highest number of foreign direct investments in Europe after London and before Paris. The strong growth of Chinese investments is explained by the location advantages offered by the technology companies in North Rhine-Westphalia, which are centrally located in Europe and the location of the exhibition, and by the dynamism of an already existing Chinese community, which is setting up and building closer networks.
Düsseldorf is a leading location in the advertising, European patent, telecommunications, consulting and art trading sectors as well as Germany's "City of Fashion". With the Igedo Fashion Fairs and the Collections Premiere Düsseldorf (CPD), you will find leading fashion fairs in Europe. With the new format The Gallery Düsseldorf, the trade fair organizer Igedo tries to build on previous successes. More than 600 showrooms of different manufacturers as well as large textile trade companies are concentrated in the state capital and more than 1,300 in the conglomeration Düsseldorf. A cluster of order offices around the Kaiserswerther Strasse in the Golzheim district is the spatial focus. In addition, Düsseldorf is Germany's number one fashion location in terms of turnover: According to a study by the Cologne Institute for Trade Research, the turnover in the fashion industry in Duesseldorf was more than twice as high in 2013, at around 18 billion euros, as in Munich and Berlin combined. It is estimated that the location on the Rhine is both sober and business efficient.
In 2011, the cultural and creative industries of the city comprised some 4,100 companies with an annual turnover of approximately EUR 7.4 billion, while the creative class’s share of the social security workforce is the highest among the districts and district-free cities of North Rhine-Westphalia in Düsseldorf, according to a survey for 2008. Within Germany, the closely-linked metropolitan region Rhein-Ruhr is regarded as the leading center of the creative economy.
Düsseldorf is one of the largest financial centers in Germany, along with Frankfurt/Main, Munich and Stuttgart. Furthermore, Düsseldorf is an important traditional German stock exchange city (Börse Düsseldorf). As a bank location with national and international significance, 83 credit institutions are represented in Düsseldorf with a branch or its head office. These include the traditional bank HSBC Drinaus & Burkhardt, NRW.BANK, Deutsche Apotheker- und Physitebank, Deutsche Industriebank (IKB), Targobank, Sparda-Bank West, PSD-Bank Rhein Ruhr, Stadtsparkasse Düsseldorf, as well as many foreign banks such as BBVA, Wells Fargo and Crédit Mutuel. The large Japanese banks MUFG Bank, Mizuho Bank and Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation all have their headquarters in Düsseldorf. Finally, Düsseldorf is the seat of some major insurance companies such as ERGO Insurance Group, ARAG Group, Provincial Rheinland and Deutsche Rück. Two well-known FinTechs from Düsseldorf are Auxmoney and Compeon. Düsseldorf is an important location in the field of auditing. The large, globally active auditing companies, PwC, KPMG, Deloitte and EY, have larger locations in the state capital. Warth & Klein Grant Thornton has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf. McKinsey has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf as well as Accenture, Boston Consulting Group, Kienbaum and Bain & Company in Düsseldorf. A total of about 880 audits with about 9,900 employees are carried out in Düsseldorf.
Düsseldorf is one of the most important locations in Germany as a location for law firms, especially with the focus on business law. Among others Hengeler Müller, Freshfield Bruckhaus Deringer, Clifford Chance and White & Case run law firms in Düsseldorf. Taylor Wessing is headquartered in Düsseldorf. In total, about 1,300 law firms have a location in Düsseldorf and employ about 6,000 employees subject to social security. Düsseldorf is also considered the most important court for European patent disputes.
Numerous international companies are located here: L’Oréal Germany, Komatsu Mining Germany, Air Liquide Germany, Nikon Germany, Vodafone Germany, Metro AG, Rheinmetall, Henkel, Tata Steel with Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes, E-Plus and Qiagen. Daimler produces the closed series of Mercedes-Benz Sprinter in Düsseldorf and the technically related Crafter for VW. Numerous medium-sized companies in the fields of high technology, medical technology, special machine and plant construction as well as drive and production technology and food production have been an integral part of the Düsseldorf industrial landscape for decades. These include the companies Gerresheimer AG, Demag Cranes AG, Vossloh AG, GEA Group AG, A.u.K. Müller GmbH & Co. KG, Walter Flender Group and Zamek. The largest Japanese colony in continental Europe has been named "Nippon am Rhein" in Düsseldorf. However, companies from other countries - especially the Netherlands, the UK, France, Scandinavia and China - are also active in the city.
Since the turn of the century, a vibrant start-up scene has also developed in Düsseldorf in the area of Internet economics, but it cannot yet compete with cities such as Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. Among the most famous start-ups in Düsseldorf are the hotel search engine Trivago and the FinTechs Auxmoney.
Düsseldorf's economic strength has helped the city to achieve sound municipal finances with balanced budgets since 1999. In 2007, the city was the second big city in Germany to be debt-free. Düsseldorf was the first German city to undergo a credit rating in 2005 and was rated by the rating agency Moody’s with Aa1, the second best possible rating. The creditworthiness of Düsseldorf was thus estimated to be higher than that of North Rhine-Westphalia (Aa2), Deutsche Bank (Aa3) or Commerzbank (A2).
In 2012, the gross domestic product in Düsseldorf was 41.5 billion euros. This represents a share of 7.1% of North Rhine-Westphalia’s gross domestic product in 2012. GDP per worker in Düsseldorf was 82,667 euros in 2012 - 125.3% of that in North Rhine-Westphalia. In the nationwide comparison of cities, the city, together with Frankfurt/Main, is thus at the top of Germany's ranks. The purchasing power index for the state capital has been about 20 percent higher than the federal average for many years. Despite the differentiated economy and the good framework conditions, unemployment has been higher than the German average for years, due to the loss of more than 50,000 jobs in industry and manufacturing over the past 30 years. In 2014, the city's debts amounted to €383 million.
The city's economic, office and administrative sites have been distributed throughout the city, with the city's urban planning objectives of reducing urban congestion, unbundling transport, exploiting more favorable land prices and creating urban development momentum. In addition to the city center, the following areas are considered as the most important offices and administrative locations:
- Media port/government district
- Kennedydamm-Golzheim/northern Derendorf
- upper case
- Upper Bank/International Trade Center
- Airport/Düsseldorf Airport City
- Mörsenbroicher Ei and
- Grafenberger Allee.
The Düsseldorf real estate site, which is the leading location in the Rhein-Ruhr metropolitan area, attracts high-quality real estate developments and investments, both in the commercial and residential sector, due to its value and its good demographic and economic prospects. The consultancy bulwiengesa ranks the city in the group of so-called A cities, along with six other German metropolises, due to its importance for the real estate market. According to a CBRE study, Düsseldorf was one of the top ten investment markets for commercial real estate in Europe in the first half of 2013. In 2015, the total value of commercial real estate sold exceeded the €3 billion mark for the first time. Population growth (mainly through the inflow of new citizens) and an increase in elderly occupants' occupancy could add 3.1% to total housing demand between 2006 and 2025. The gentrification promoted by individualization and metropolization, which is realized in the residential market as a crowding out of low-income environments by new citizens with higher incomes, is leading to an increasing debate about housing policy in the city. Strong demand for housing is matched by a small number of free dwellings and a small number of new dwellings, driving up housing prices. This situation, which is currently ongoing, leads to an optimal economic environment for high-return investments, in particular for investments in modern design, high-quality new residential buildings, especially since, as a result of the low levels of new construction activity in recent decades, about 81% of the housing stock is now over 30 years old. However, in comparison with the average net household income of Düsseldorf, rental prices in the city are low by metropolitan comparison. A study published in October 2012 by the German Real Estate Association found that for a 3-room rental apartment with 70 square meters of medium-size accommodation, the reference figure for a Düsseldorf household is an average of 19.8 percent of income, but an average Berlin household is 23.0 percent. In 2013, the Deutsche Bundesbank reported that price developments in housing markets in German cities, especially in Düsseldorf, might have led to "exaggerations". As a result of the financial and global economic crisis, several trends that have led to exceptionally high increases in long-term real estate prices, especially in urban areas, have become overwhelmed in Düsseldorf in recent years: a trend back to the city (re-urbanization), communal liberalization efforts, negative real interest rates, the "flight" of private investors to tangible assets, poor investment alternatives to low-risk investments by institutional investors, and some population growth.
Düsseldorf has a dense transport infrastructure. This is particularly supported by the good equipment of local public transport and motorized private transport. In addition, the smaller size of the city and the location in a highly developed polycentric space structure significantly reduce the likelihood of traffic jams. In 2001, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, in the center of Düsseldorf, was the leader of the investigated regions in Northwest Europe in terms of accessibility potential in road and rail transport. In contrast, for example, a comparison of the management consultancy Arthur D. Little, which Düsseldorf sees last place with regard to the coordination and networking of public transport systems in major German cities.
Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third largest international airport in terms of passenger numbers after Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport. In 2012, some 20.8 million people with 60 different airlines flew from and to 200 destinations worldwide in over 50 countries. The airport is located close to the city center and the exhibition center in Stockum, its direct connection to the motorway network and its excellent rail connections, which makes it possible to transfer quickly to the city and the region.
Shipping and ports
With the inner city port in the district of the same name and the Reisholzer Harbor, which has been planned for a long time, the Rhine navigation in the city area is available two cargo handling terminals. Düsseldorf is well connected to Europe's inland waterways network - including Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder and Danube - and to important seaports along the North Sea and the Black Sea via the Rhine, the associated canals and the Main-Danube Canal. For water sports, there is a sports and yacht harbor at the Rheinpark Golzheim.
Between the old town and Kaiserswerth, regular passenger ships of the White Fleet Düsseldorf operate from the Rhine Railway before 1993. The Cologne-Düsseldorf Rheinschiffahrts AG (kd) also owns berths in the city area. The Rhine ferry Langst-Kaiserswerth and the ferry between Urdenbach and Zons still operate two car ferries. A third ferry operated between Himmelgeist and Uedesheim until the Fleher Bridge was opened in 1979. Today, on Sundays, a passenger ferry operates with the possibility of taking bicycles. For several years now, passenger ferries have been operating between the Rheinkirmes and the old town.
The federal roads B 1 and B 8 cross the city area in a north-south direction and the federal road B 7 in an east-west direction. They owe their present form and character
- the Theodor Heuss Bridge, completed in 1957,
- ring-shaped streets running around the city between the cemetery of the north and south, which have been extended to the so-called Lastring,
- the new B 8 between Golzheim and the Duisburg-South motorway crossing called Gdańsk Street; and
- the Rhine River Tunnel, in operation since 15 December 1993.
The B 228 connects Benrath with Hilden, Haan and Wuppertal. Today, all federal roads in the urban area serve primarily urban transit traffic and traffic to and from the motorways that have played the role of federal roads in the long-distance network outside the urban area. Therefore, with the exception of B 7 and B 228 to Wuppertal, the marking of the federal roads ends in the city area or just behind it. One example is the former B 8 between Wersten and Hellerhof and further on to Opladen. In parallel with it, the Munich and Frankfurt streets run a four-lane road between Bilk and Garath. Its construction began in the 1960s in order to cope with the multiplication of car traffic in the fast growing or new districts of Düsseldorf's south.
After World War II, traffic planning was first modeled on Friedrich Tamms, a proponent of the car-friendly city. In addition to some of the above-mentioned construction projects, the Rheinkniebrücke bridge and the Oberkasseler bridge, he planned a third efficient north-south traffic route between Golzheim and Wersten. The Berlin Allee and the high road that followed north - also called a thousand feet, torn down again in April 2013 and replaced by tunnel structures under the Kö-Arch - were the central projects on this axis and were built between 1954 and 1962.
The A 3 between Frankfurt am Main and Oberhausen runs east of the city and was the closest motorway until the end of the 1960s. Her first piece between Mettmann and Cologne-Mülheim was released in 1936. It was first accessible only via the B7 today. The Northern feeder was established between 1950 and 1960 with the new and expansion of the B 1 between the present Mörsenbroicher Ei and Kreuz Breitscheid to the motorway. The southern feeder - a road marked as B 326 between Wersten and the current cross of Hilden - was added in 1956.
The A 57 between Cologne and Nijmegen is the second north-south connection within reach of the city, exists since 1986, the section between Neuss and Cologne since 1966 (from 1970 onwards) and was first accessible only via the current Josef-Cardinal-Frings bridge.
The A 52 is divided into two sections in the greater Düsseldorf area. The northern section between the Düsseldorf-Rath junction and the Essen-Ost triangle corresponds to the Northern feeder to the Breitscheid cross, which was upgraded to the motorway in 1971. The western part stretches today between the Büderich and Roermond junction, is the continuation of the B7 in a western direction and connects the city to the A 57 via the Kaarster Kreuz. The first section to the Neersen cross was opened in 1971 and upgraded to the motorway in 1973.
The A 59 between the Triangle Düsseldorf-Süd and the Kreuz Leverkusen-West runs parallel to the A 3, relieves it, but also connects Monheim, Langenfeld and Leverkusen better to Düsseldorf and was built between 1968 and 1973.
The A46 between Heinsberg and the cross Wuppertal-Nord runs the city south, connects the Heinrich-Heine-Universität to the motorway network and since 1986 it has been providing a complete cross-connection between the A3, A 59 and A 57. Parts were released in 1979 after the completion of the Fleher Bridge and in 1983 with the opening of the University Tunnel. In 1972, the southern feeder was upgraded to the motorway.
The A 44 between Aachen and Velbert runs through the northern parts of the city and since the airport bridge was opened in 2002 it has been providing a complete cross-connection between the A 3, A 52 and A 57. The direct connection of the trade fair, ESPRIT arena and the airport to the motorway network took place in 1992, when an important part of the A 44 was opened in the junction Düsseldorf-Nord and connected to the A 52.
The most recent motorways A 44 and A 46 in the greater Düsseldorf are the only interregional motorways in East-West direction. They cross the entire city area, which is why they had to take advantage of the other Rhine bridges and urban transit roads, but also build four motorway tunnels. Together with the A 3 and the A 57, they form the Düsseldorf motorway ring since 2002.
On 13 September 2016, the Düsseldorf district government was ordered by the Düsseldorf administrative court to amend the air pollution control plan in force since the beginning of 2013 to include the necessary measures to comply with the NO2 limit value as soon as possible. The government's obligation to protect health demands that the limit value be respected as soon as possible. The current air pollution control plan would no longer do justice to this, given the large proportion of diesel vehicles caused by the pollution: It therefore needs to be continued within one year. In this context, it would also be necessary to seriously examine and consider driving bans on diesel vehicles.
The railway lines pass through the city
- Cologne-Duisburg (with ICE and EC/IC traffic)
- Düsseldorf-Essen (S-Bahn only),
- Düsseldorf-Solingen (S-Bahn only),
- Düsseldorf-Mettmann (S-Bahn only) and
- Troisdorf-Mülheim-Speldorf (freight only)
In the main railway station - the central railway station, which has been in its current location since 1891 - these railway lines are linked to the metro and other local public transport, up to the freight railway line.
On the Cologne-Duisburg railway line, close to the airport, the Düsseldorf Airport station, where, in addition to the trains of an S-Bahn and all seven regional express trains, some of the ICE and EC/IC trains run there. The terminals, located just 2.5 km away, can be reached by SkyTrain for passengers and visitors to the airport. There a second connection of the airport to the rail network via the underground train station Düsseldorf-Flughafen Terminal, via which a second S-Bahn line operates throughout the day and individual journeys of several regional express and other S-Bahn lines are extended at night.
Also on the Cologne-Duisburg railway line but in the south of Düsseldorf lies the regional train station Düsseldorf-Benrath, where two regional express lines and one S-Bahn line stop all day. The Düsseldorf-Bilk railway station, located on the Mönchengladbach-Düsseldorf railway line, is a very busy junction between three S-Bahn lines, the Wehrhahn-line trams and the bus connections to Heinrich-Heine-Universität and will be extended to the regional railway station in the coming years.
25 S-Bahn stations are located in the city area, including the above stations.
However, after the closure and dismantling of its marshaling yard in Düsseldorf-Derendorf, Düsseldorf is no longer a hub for rail freight traffic, and the largest freight station in the entire Düsseldorf railway complex is now in the neighboring Neuss station.
local public transport
Düsseldorf has a dense network of S-Bahn, city rail, tram and city bus lines, which is part of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR). Local public transport (public transport) in the city area is operated by the Rheinbahn, Regiobahn and Deutsche Bahn. The main railway station in Düsseldorf is controlled not only by the operator Deutsche Bahn but also by other railway companies such as Abellio Rail NRW. All lines can be used here and even if destinations outside the city but within the territory of the VRR, with tickets from the VRR. In addition, the NRW fare and the fare of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (VRS) for journeys to the greater Cologne area also apply.
A tramway network was built in the late 19th century, first with carriages pulled by horses over the tracks, then electrically from 1896 onwards. This network also included overland routes to Krefeld (K-Bahn) and Duisburg (D-Bahn), as well as from Benrath to Solingen-Ohligs. The connections to Krefeld and Duisburg still exist as metro lines U 70 and U 76 (Krefeld) and U 79 (Duisburg). Other cross-site lines exist after Neuss and Ratingen. With the successive extension of the city rail network, the tramway network shrank from 19 (1981) to seven (2018) lines and to a length of 70.2 kilometers.
The Düsseldorf metro is currently 11 lines. Seven of them pass through the inner city tunnel, which opened in 1988, between the Heinrich-Heine-Allee underground station and the main railway station. Another tunnel for four new city railway lines, the Wehrhahn line, was opened on 20 February 2016. The Heinrich-Heine-Allee underground station is the central junction between all the city railway lines. All tunnels have upper-ground access routes which are only partly equipped with independent or special railway bodies.
Since 1924 regular buses have been operating in Düsseldorf. In addition to city bus lines within the city area, local buses (see regional bus services) provided connections to other cities, in particular after some overland tram lines were closed. Meanwhile, the Rheinbahn has stopped its line to Jülich and shortened further lines to Essen, Velbert, Solingen, Corpses, Opladen and Moers. There are still connections to Mülheim an der Ruhr, Mettmann, Erkrath, Solingen-Ohligs, Langenfeld and Monheim. In the meantime, even express buses go to Haan. Today, there are 42 city bus and seven express bus lines in the city area. Bus lines are also an essential part of night traffic during the nights of Friday to Saturday, Saturday to Sunday and nights of holidays. Eight Night Express lines run between 0 and 5 am every 30 or 60 minutes. On 20 August 2018, the company will start operations on three metrobus lines.
The first S-Bahn outside the Berlin and Hamburg metropolitan areas was opened in 1967 between Garath and Ratingen. It was followed by the connection of the airport to the S-Bahn (city rail) network in 1975 with the opening of the railway station under the terminal, the commissioning of the S8 - also called East-West S-Bahn - between the main railway stations of Hagen and Mönchengladbach on 29 May 1988 and the S28 between Kaarst and Mettmann on 26 September. 1999th Following the extension of further lines, seven S-Bahn lines currently operate in the urban area.
cycling and walking
Düsseldorf is connected to a number of national and international cycling routes. a. on the Rheinradweg.
Since 2008, the city center of Düsseldorf has a network-type bicycle rental system, which is also suitable for one-way journeys. The operator is the company nextbike. In 2011, 400 bikes are available at 58 marked stops in the city area. Pedelecs are lent at the bike station at the main station.
The city of Düsseldorf is a member of the working group of pedestrian and bicycle-friendly towns, municipalities and districts in North Rhine-Westphalia, from which it was awarded the title "Bicycle-friendly City" in 2007, although many people still consider the network to be very incomplete.
Düsseldorf is one of the few cities in Germany with a separate yellow phase for pedestrians. Here the yellow signal is marked by a rectangular yellow bar. During this time, pedestrians have the opportunity to clear the crossing without having to run against red, as in other cities. Immediately after the pedestrian signal changes from yellow to red, the clearance for cross-traffic is initiated. Even before the green phase, pedestrians have a short red-yellow phase of less than one second. Ampels in Düsseldorf have already to a large extent switched to light emitting diodes technology, which is intended to ensure lower maintenance costs, clearer recognition and also lower energy consumption compared to incandescent lamps.
technology, industry and manufacturing
Düsseldorf's rapid development into a big city was driven by the establishment of industrial enterprises in the 19th century. The capital of North Rhine-Westphalia is still an industrial city. In 2005, the 1129 manufacturing businesses (excluding construction and energy and water supply) accounted for about 29% of the taxable turnover of all enterprises in the city, which is slightly less than trade (around 32%), but significantly more than services (around 9%). However, the importance of manufacturing has decreased significantly in recent years. While the Dusseldorf industry still provided 90,000 jobs in 1979, the number of employees in this sector declined to only 38,791 per year by 2006, with a declining trend.
The largest and most well-known industrial company in Düsseldorf is the Henkel Group, a chemical company that manufactures detergents, cleaning agents, cosmetics and personal care products as well as adhesives, sealants and surface technology products and continues to manufacture these products in the Reisholz district. L’Oréal Deutschland GmbH, Marbert AG and Hakle-Kimberly Deutschland GmbH (Kimberly-Clark Corporation) are active in the cosmetics and hygiene sector in Düsseldorf. In the field of medical technology and pharmaceuticals, Gerresheimer AG is a global MDAX-listed company for high-performance glasses and biocompatible plastic products.
The metal manufacturing industry has a long tradition. The most famous company in this field was Mannesmann, which after its break-up continues to produce in parts of Düsseldorf, including the Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes (steel tubes). The Rheinmetall group, the largest German arms producer based in Düsseldorf-Derendorf, is also well known. Other metal processing companies are Schmolz + Bickenbach (long stainless steel products) and Hille & Müller GmbH. Since 2011, GEA Group AG, an internationally active company in the field of special machinery construction, has its headquarters in Düsseldorf.
In the automotive, transport and transport sectors, the largest plant is the Mercedes-Benz plant in Derendorf, where the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter and VW Crafter are produced and assembled, as well as CKD vehicles for the US Mercedes Freightliner brand. Demag Cranes produces harbor, terminal and railway cranes in Benrath as well as automatically controlled transport vehicles and develops related management and navigation software. Komatsu Mining Germany GmbH produces large hydraulics and mini-hydraulic excavators. Demag Cranes and Komatsu Mining Germany combine the common origin of Carlshütte AG. Vossloh Kiepe GmbH also manufactures control and drive technology for trams and buses, as well as hybrid drives and special vehicles. The Walther Flender Group manufactures drive and conveyor technology. From the past, Schiess AG and DUEWAG are worth mentioning.
The paper industry is represented in the city by Julius Schulte Söhne GmbH & Co. and Stora-Enso Group (formerly Feldmühle), which until 2008 has a production site in Reisholz and now has its German headquarters in Düsseldorf. Guschky & Tönnesmann GmbH & Co. KG manufactures equipment for the paper and packaging industry.
Zamek Food GmbH & Co. KG, Teekanne GmbH, Düsseldorfer Löwensenf GmbH, BASF Personal Care and Nutrition and Fortin Mühlenwerke are known for their food products. The traditional Düsseldorf old beer is no longer brewed in large breweries, except in domestic breweries. Instead, the large brewery sites in Derendorf and Heerdt are now convertible areas. In addition, the German animal food company Cremer is Germany's largest compound feed manufacturer based in Düsseldorf.
Other well-known companies are SMS Siemag, which manufactures metallurgical and rolling mill technology, TELBA AG in the field of telecommunication and security technology, behr Labor-Technik GmbH, A.u.K. Müller GmbH & Co. KG, a company for solenoid valves, MHG Strahlanlagen GmbH as well as Carborundum-Dilumit Schleiftechnik GmbH (formerly Carbo Group), which manufactures grinding wheels.
Trade and services
With the Metro Group and its subsidiary Metro Cash & Carry, one of the world’s largest trading groups is located in the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia. Furthermore, the centers of clothing houses such as Peek & Cloppenburg Düsseldorf (P&C) and C&A are located in the city area. As a location for the fashion trade and through the trade fairs igedo and CPD, the city was able to acquire the reputation of a fashion city.
The main focus of the urban economic structure, with around 1,500 companies and 24,000 employees, is the information and communication technology sectors, in particular the mobile phone sector. More than half of the German mobile and SIM card sales are controlled from Düsseldorf. Vodafone GmbH, as the successor to Mannesmann Mobilfunk, has its seat in the city as well as E-Plus. Vodafone has also located its German and European headquarters in the Vodafone campus in Düsseldorf-Heerdt, on the left. In 2008, the Chinese telecommunications company Huawei moved its European headquarters from London to Düsseldorf. Here, the company is building its European headquarters and a research and development center to meet the needs of its European customers. In 2005, the Chinese telecommunications equipment manufacturer ZTE Deutschland GmbH had already established its headquarters in Düsseldorf. The Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson did so for its German business back in 1955.
Uniper SE and several of its subsidiaries are also headquartered in Düsseldorf. The Stadtwerke Düsseldorf and Naturstrom AG are also active in the energy sector in the urban area.
Mister Minit, one of the largest franchisees in Germany, has had its service center in the north of Düsseldorf since 2011.
In Düsseldorf there are studios of the public television station Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR.-Studio Düsseldorf) and Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF-Landesstudio Düsseldorf). The programs of NRW.TV and QVC also come from Düsseldorf. Originally based in Düsseldorf, NBC GIGA was from 1998 to 2006, from 1995 to its recruitment in 1998 Nickelodeon and from 1996 to its recruitment in 1998 The weather channel. In addition, until the end of 2003 a German program window was produced on the news channel CNN.
DFA, based in Düsseldorf, produces and produces for example NBC GIGA, Der Wetterkanal, CNN D and NRW.TV.
Since 2006 the center.tv, based in Düsseldorf, has been producing local news and events for the greater Düsseldorf/Neuss region. In addition there are several independent film production companies in Düsseldorf, such as Public Vision TV OHG and Busse & Halberschmidt.
Similarly, ISQ.networks Press Agency, with 24,000 employees worldwide, has its global headquarters in the CAP 15 at Graf-Adolf-Platz. Although the company has more than 100 studios worldwide, there is no studio in Düsseldorf.
The national TV tutor nrwision bundles TV programs about Düsseldorf and TV makers from Düsseldorf in its media library.
The city is also the seat of the Association of Operating Companies in North Rhine-Westphalia e.V. (BGNRW) founded in 1990, which represents the interests of 43 operating companies of the local radio network in North Rhine-Westphalia. The association is a member of the Private Broadcasting Association (APR) based in Munich. In Düsseldorf, the private broadcasting station "Antenna Düsseldorf" is based with the radio program "Radio NRW". Radio for the Düsseldorf universities makes higher education radio Düsseldorf, a campusradio with its own 24-hour frequency.
Daily newspapers in Düsseldorf include the Westdeutsche Zeitung, the Rheinische Post (Rheinische Post), a local edition of the Express, and the Neue Rhein/Neue Ruhr-Zeitung published in Essen. The regional pages in Die Welt Kompakt were last published on August 28, 2015. The Handelsblatt, the Wirtschaftswoche and the now recruited young career are among the most important national publications. The Dusseldorf Official Journal and the advertisements "Düsseldorf Scoreboard" and "Rheinbote" also appear weekly. In addition, the city is the headquarters of the nationwide published content marketing magazine Wirtschaftsblatt.
In addition, Düsseldorf is the most profitable location in Germany. In addition to the giants BBDO, Grey, Ogilvy & Mather, Havas and Publicis, a large number of small agencies have their headquarters or a German branch in Düsseldorf.
Information technology (IT) and data traffic
Düsseldorf is one of the leading IT locations in Germany. The city's IT infrastructure has international and regional internet nodes. Since October 2011 the LTE mobile network has been available in Düsseldorf. On 9 January 2012, the digital radio test operation of the authorities and organizations with security tasks (BOS) started in Düsseldorf. Wall GmbH offers free wireless internet at 55 locations in Düsseldorf and Freifunk offers over 200 hotspots. Unitymedia has over 20 wireless hotspots.
Düsseldorf has developed as a versatile location for shopping centers and shops of all kinds and sizes. The total sales area in the city area is declared by the city administration at 834,215 m² and is therefore higher than in Munich and lower than in Frankfurt/Main in terms of sales area to inhabitants. Especially in the fashion sector, the city - not least favored by the fashion fairs and the local trading companies P&C and C&A - has a pioneering role, and it is Germany's leading textile retailer. Düsseldorf is also the leader in luxury clothing. According to Jones Lang LaSalle, the Kö is still Germany's most visited luxury mile. In 2012, Jones Lang LaSalle found in an investigation that Kö was able to further expand its lead. With 5,935 (2011: 5,800) Passers-by per hour is located well in front of the Stuttgart Pendure Road (2,310 passers-by) and the Goethestrasse in Frankfurt am Main (1,520 passers-by). Düsseldorf's Schadowstraße is the largest shopping street in Europe. However, the construction of a new metro line, the Wehrhahn line, has reduced the number of visitors, as the road is closed in sections and access to shops is restricted. Nevertheless, Schadowstraße retains its characteristic as the most profitable shopping street in Europe.
In addition to the classic shopping streets such as the well-known Kö, Schadowstraße and Flinger Straße, Düsseldorf also has several shopping centers, some of which are adjacent to the shopping streets. With 10,150 passers-by per hour, Flinger Strasse, which is in the favorable to medium-price category, will for the first time jump into the top 10 of the most visited shopping streets in Germany.
On the Königsallee, these are in particular the Kö-Center on the northern avenue, the Kö-Galerie near the intersection with the Steinstraße with access and passage to the Stadtsparkasse on the Berliner Allee and the Seven Center between the intersection with the Steinstraße and the Kö-Galerie.
Close to the Königsallee there are also the Schadow arcades in the block Schadow-, Blumenstrasse and Martin Luther-Platz.
There are also shopping centers in less busy parts of the city center, in particular the Stilwerk on the Green Street and the Düsseldorf Arcaden at the Bilker Station, which also houses the district center, a public swimming pool and a branch of the Düsseldorf city libraries.
Outside the city center there are other shopping centers such as the Westfalenstraße shopping mall on the homonymous street in Rath, the B8 center in Flingern, newly opened in spring 2010, and the AirportArkaden in Düsseldorf Airport, designed for both travelers and other visitors.
Entities and bodies governed by public law:
Düsseldorf became an important administrative center, especially in the Prussian era in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The settlement of the Higher Regional Court in Duesseldorf was particularly supportive of this development. In addition to the Oberlandesgericht (Higher Regional Court), Düsseldorf also has numerous other courts, including the Administrative Court of Düsseldorf, the Regional Court of Duesseldorf, the Social Court of Duesseldorf, the Finanzgericht Düsseldorf, the Arbeitsgericht Düsseldorf and the Regional Labor Court of North Rhine-Westphalia. Dusseldorf's courts made decisions of a nationwide significance. Dusseldorf's civil courts have become of international importance in the area of patent litigation.
The German pension insurance Rhineland (formerly LVA Rheinprovinz) has been based in Düsseldorf since its foundation in the 19th century. There is also a regional location of Social Security for Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture (SVLFG).
As a direct consequence of the administrative settlement by Prussia, the council of the Lower Rhine and the Bergisches Land was settled in Düsseldorf during the reorganization of Prussia in the 19th century. The district government of Düsseldorf is still based here today. Until a few years ago, the Rhineland senior finance department was also based in Düsseldorf since Prussian rule over the Rhineland.
The Chamber of Crafts in Düsseldorf, as a chamber district, comprises the district of Düsseldorf and is also based there. Düsseldorf and the district of Mettmann, formerly the district of Düsseldorf, make up the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Düsseldorf (Chamber of Commerce in Düsseldorf). The Architects' Association of North Rhine-Westphalia, the largest institution of this kind in Germany, supports the architects and city planners of the country from the state capital. The Düsseldorf Bar Association represents the interests of 11,403 lawyers in the district of the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court. It is therefore the sixth largest of 28 Bar Associations in Germany.
The Prussian Provincial Assembly for the Rhineland also took its seat in Düsseldorf, in the House of Commons, as did the Protestant Church in the Rhineland.
In 1946, by decision of the military government of the British occupation zone, Düsseldorf was designated as the seat of government of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Since then, the city has been the official name of the capital of the country, although it is not legally standardized. The state parliament, the state chancellery, all state ministries and the state audit office are based in Düsseldorf. Over the last few decades, a district of government has developed in the area of the Rhine Bridge on the right bank of the Rhine. Decisions taken in this area are regarded as indicators of developments in Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia's governments and government crises have a signal effect on federal politics.
Other central bodies
Düsseldorf was considered a city of associations in the Federal Republic of Germany. For example, the German Federation of Trade Unions (DGB) has been based in Düsseldorf for a long time. Today, the main associations headquartered in Düsseldorf are:
- the Rheinische Sparkassen- und Giroverband
- the Association of German Engineers VDI
- the Bundesverband Deutscher Volks- und Betriebswirwirt bdvb
- the West German cooperative central bank.
Many smaller associations are also based in Düsseldorf, such as the German Association for welding and related processes (DVS), the Düsseldorf Association of Architects and Engineers, the Landesmusikrat Nordrhein-Westfalen and the Association of Turkish entrepreneurs and industrialists in Europe.
Education and research
Düsseldorf has been a long-standing Bergische residence town and a later administrative seat in the Rhine province of Prussia and has always fulfilled representative responsibilities as well as functions in central locations.
The first Latin school was mentioned in the 14th century. In 1545, the oldest high school was founded. Since the 18th century Düsseldorf has been an important academic center for the training of artists.
The Franciscans offered theological courses in Düsseldorf from 1673. From 1728 onwards, Düsseldorf offered courses in philosophy and theology, which could be regarded as part of a study, a legal academy received the curriculum certificate in 1755 for the training of senior officials, and in 1747 the Collegio anatomico Surgicum for the training of military and wound doctors was established. From 1779, senior state officials had to have studied law in Duesseldorf for at least two years.
Due to the proximity of the Ruhr area, Düsseldorf became the seat of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Eisforschung, the current Max-Planck-Institute for Ice Research in 1917.
A medical academy was added at the beginning of the 20th century. However, Düsseldorf became a university town only in 1965.
In 1964 the city joined the "Institute for the attainment of university degrees for craftsmen, skilled workers and other professionals with completed education e. V." and has since been the sponsor of the Wilhelm-Heinrich-Riehl-College.
The scientific and academic institutions in Düsseldorf are:
- Heinrich-Heine-Universität, which offers a wide range of subjects at five faculties: These are the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Mathematics and Science, the Faculty of Philosophy, the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Law. Today's university was founded in 1907 as an Academy of Practical Medicine and was raised to university in 1965. In 1980 she joined the Neuss department of the Rhineland School of Pedagogy. It has been named since 1988.
- University of Düsseldorf with its technical and economic subjects, founded in 1971 from various training centers as Fachhochschule Düsseldorf
- Düsseldorf Academy of Art, founded in 1773, has been one of the most important training centers of its kind since the 19th century
- University Center of the FOM
- Düsseldorf Business School, linked to Heinrich-Heine University
- Robert Schumann University, founded in 1935 by the Robert Schumann Conservatory and the State School of Music Rhineland, became an independent university in 1987
- Max-Planck-Institut für Eisforschung GmbH in the Düsseltal district, which was founded there as part of the settlement of the steel industry
- Established in 1973, the German Diabetes Center, which is part of the Leibniz Community and whose tasks include clinical care for diabetics as well as research on diabetes mellitus
- Düsseldorfer Academy for Marketing Communication
- EBC University, private university of specialties
- Design Department Düsseldorf (Academy of Fashion and Communication), since 2008
- Fliedner Fachhochschule Düsseldorf in Kaiserswerth, since October 2011
- IST School of Management, founded in 2013
- AMD Akademie Mode & Design, private college for design, fashion, communication and industry management, study center
- WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, since 2013 Zweitcampus in Düsseldorf (Headquarters in Vallendar)
The Gerda-Henkel Foundation, based in Düsseldorf, has a special reputation in the field of foundations promoting education and research.
Primary and general education
There are 110 primary schools, 14 primary schools, 13 secondary schools and 21 secondary schools in Düsseldorf. There are also 8 schools in total and Waldorf as well as 6 foreign schools and the Wilhelm-Heinrich-Riehl-College as an institution of adult education.
The city of Düsseldorf has put a focus on the quality of school buildings. In 2000, a real estate company was commissioned to record the deficiencies of all school buildings and to draw up a plan for their removal. Instead of annual investments of < 5 MECU. €35 million per year was diagnosed as a need. A "master plan school" was then adopted to invest a total of €600 million in 2002-2020.
The sustainable promotion of music at all levels is unique in Germany thanks to the SingPause initiated by the Municipal Music Association at more than half of Düsseldorf's primary schools.
Days and care places for children under three
By decision of the city council, the Düsseldorf nursery centers are free of contributions for all children over three years of age, whereas in North Rhine-Westphalia only the last kindergarten year is normally free of contributions.
Düsseldorf is at the top of the cities in North Rhine-Westphalia with a 38.4 % childcare rate for children under the age of three at the beginning of 2013. This means that the support rate in Düsseldorf is already above the state government's target of 32 % before the entry into force of the right to a childcare place as of 1 August 2013, which is enshrined in the Children's Promotion Act. However, the city aims to achieve a 50% support rate in the near term and 60% in the medium term.
assessment of economic strength, sustainability and quality of life through rankings
Düsseldorf has occupied most of the front seats in numerous German as well as international city comparisons and rankings. Different indicators of economic strength, quality of infrastructure and quality of life were used. In particular, international comparisons of cities indicate that the capital of the country is included in the transnational network of global cities.
The good performance in many rankings is based on the city's debt-free environment, while at the same time high wealth, the international airport, its central location, rich educational infrastructure and cultural life, high average per capita income and rising population numbers. Individual rankings also take into account factors such as the density of internationally active companies or the abundance of green areas and recreational areas.
The main rankings are:
- the research results of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), which lead Düsseldorf as a World City in the category Beta World Cities +. Worldwide, 15 other cities are ranked in the same category, including the German cities of Hamburg and Berlin, and 47 cities are ranked higher, including Frankfurt/Main and Munich, on the basis of economic, cultural and social criteria that have an impact on the global importance of a city. In 2008 Düsseldorf was still a member of the category Beta World Cities -. At the turn of the millennium, Düsseldorf was still represented in the next lower category Gamma World Cities +.
- the international ranking of the quality of life of the business consultancy Mercer, with Düsseldorf ranking 6 in comparison with 223 major cities worldwide. Of the German cities, only Munich with number 4 achieves a better ranking.
- the INSM and Economic Week rankings, which assessed both the current economic strength and dynamism, i.e. the development of the 50 largest cities, and at which Düsseldorf moved to Münster as the second city in North Rhine-Westphalia to rank 4
- the Urban Regeneration by the Hamburg Institute of the World Economy on behalf of Berenberg Bank, in which the sustainability of Germany's 30 largest cities was examined. Düsseldorf reached third place in 2010 and thus improved significantly compared to 11th place in 2008. The institute found that in 2008 the gross domestic product per worker is not higher in any other German city.
- the city ranking of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, conducted by the consultancy Roland Berger, in Düsseldorf, Germany. rank
- an analysis by the Prognos-Institute for all 413 circular cities and districts in Germany on future investments and growth potential, in Düsseldorf, Germany, the 8th. rank
- the ranking of the business magazine Capital, which assesses the cities with the best economic prospects for the coming years; Düsseldorf was 10th in 2009 and third in 2007
- the creative ranking of Focus magazine, which is based on patents, number of university graduates and technology companies, is also carried out by Roland Berger, a consultancy firm, in which Düsseldorf was placed 7th.
- the salary comparison for engineers and IT specialists, commissioned by the Süddeutsche Zeitung, ranked number 1 at Düsseldorf
In addition to the honorary citizenship law, the city of Düsseldorf also awards other honors and awards.
Since 1972, the Heinrich-Heine Prize has been awarded in the three-year period since 1981 to "personalities who, through their intellectual creation in the sense of the fundamental rights of the people whom Heinrich Heine has advocated, promote social and political progress, promote international understanding or disseminate knowledge of the coexistence of all people". The first prize was the Immermann Prize.
The Helmut Kautner Prize is a biennial award given to celebrities who "through their creation have strongly supported and influenced the development of German film culture, fostered their understanding and contributed to their recognition".
Since 1972, the prize for literature in the state capital of Düsseldorf has been awarded once a year by the Council of the state capital to artists and groups, in particular in the fields of poetry, writing, critique and translation. The prize is awarded both for a single artistic achievement and for the overall achievement of a young artist whose further development deserves to be supported.
The art prize of the state capital of Düsseldorf is an annual award given to a fine artist whose work is "the benchmark for the development of contemporary art".
Other awards are the "Great Honor Ring", the "Jan Wellem Ring" and the "Merit Plaque".
- ↑ is obtained by adding 68,2 km in accordance with the Rheinbahn Annual Report 2016 and 2 km for the length of the route of the extension of line 701